# Cylinder, mean value of Cd

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 November 15, 2012, 13:02 Cylinder, mean value of Cd #1 New Member   Guido Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 17 Rep Power: 6 Hi, i'm simulating a flow past a cylinder but I've some problems. I've used all turbulence models that Fluent offers but I'm not able to obtain a reverse flow over the cylinder before 90°. Moreover if i perform an unsteady simulation, what's the easiest way to obtain the mean value of Cd? Thanks for your answers

 November 16, 2012, 20:38 #2 Senior Member   Lucky Tran Join Date: Apr 2011 Location: Orlando, FL USA Posts: 605 Rep Power: 12 To get mean values, just activate the option "Data sampling for time statistics". Fluent will keep a running average of all variables from that time-step onwards (average x,y,z velocity, pressure, temperature, etc.). Once you've run enough time-steps to get your average you can calculate the average Cd. Just remember that it is a running average. If you mess up or change any settings you will need to clear the stored statistics and then continue the transient simulation.

 November 17, 2012, 04:32 #3 New Member   Guido Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 17 Rep Power: 6 Hi, i've activated the data sampling for time statistics but...what I've to do to obtain the mean values? If i go on Report- Forces, Fluent gives me the Cd value of the last time step not the mean value. So what I've to do to obtain that? Thanks for the answer

 November 19, 2012, 05:05 #4 New Member   Guido Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 17 Rep Power: 6 Another problem is that the pressure coefficient I have is over than 1. How is this possible?

 November 19, 2012, 11:54 Hi #5 New Member   Jorge Join Date: Jul 2012 Posts: 16 Rep Power: 5 Another way to obtain the mean Cd is to create a drag monitor, in the same place where you create and edit your residuals. When creating the drag monitor you must enable fluent to write a file with the calculated Cd for each iteration; then you extract the .txt file with the values of Cd versus flow time and plot them using excel, you can identify where your values reach the desired behavior and simply use the AVERAGE function of excel. There might be easier ways to do this inside fluent, but this works fine for me; so i hope this info is useful to you.

 November 21, 2012, 09:54 #6 New Member   Guido Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 17 Rep Power: 6 Thanks for the answer. I have a doubt. I found this: http://www.wiley.com/college/munson/...s/cylinder.pdf In the paper a flow with Reynolds over 1000 is considered turbulent (?). Moreover they obtain a pressure coefficient over than 1 (about 1.2). Someone can explain me why?

 November 22, 2012, 09:13 #7 New Member   R.P. Bharti Join Date: Oct 2009 Location: Roorkee, India Posts: 6 Rep Power: 7 To obtain the mean value of the drag coefficient (CD), you have to write the time-history of drag in file by choosing the option in monitor panel. This data can be used to obtain the mean values as well as to show the variation of drag with time... The value of pressure coefficient may be greater than 1 because it is nothing but the ratio of static to dynamic pressure. Its basically the dimensionless static pressure (scaled with dynamic pressure) rather than the normalized pressure. The normalized pressure should not go above 1 but dimensionless pressure may be. I think the critical ranges of the Reynolds number (given in the paper linked above) are not correct as per standard definition of Re. You may look out the detailed categorization in the Book "Flow Around Circular Cylinders" by M.M. Zdrakovich or in the articles by C.H.K. Williamson, etc.... I hope it clears some of your confusions....

 November 26, 2012, 05:17 #8 New Member   Guido Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 17 Rep Power: 6 Perfect, I've found the files of the cd history, thanks! About Cp...what I've to do to obtain a right maximum Cp? If i reduce the operating pressure I obtain a lower Cp? I don't know if it's physically correct, I don't think so. So what to do? Really thanks for your help!!!

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