# DPM coupling steps

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 June 16, 2005, 22:43 DPM coupling steps #1 kiao Guest   Posts: n/a Hi, Im confused about the steps undertaken for DPM coupling. As I am aware it is: 1. Solve the continuous phase (So I iterate without injections until it converges) 2. Define injections and setup in dpm panel. 3. I set up interaction with continuous phase. Some posts have suggested between 10-40, I usually use 3. Is this correct. And when I go to iterate, Fluent doesn't solve for the injections immediately, it iterates the coninuous phase to the point with which I set it at. When it finally gets to the injection, there is a spike in the residuals.(.. and yes I have problems with converging) So my questions are: 1. Are the steps I undertook correct, I mean I have to keep pressing the iterate button until the injections are introduced and sometimes it doesn't spike and converges immediatly? Is this possible? 2. How do you define the convergence. If you set the interactions with continuous phase high, then the continuous phase simply solves itself until it reaches its initial convergence regardless of where the residuals were at the point when the injections were introduced. Doesn't this mean that you can converge easily if you set the iterations per continuous phase to 1000, therefore wouldn't a lower value of iterations per continuous phase iterations be more accurate? thanks for reading... i am so confused... kiao

 June 17, 2005, 00:33 Re: DPM coupling steps #2 Me Guest   Posts: n/a "1. Solve the continuous phase (So I iterate without injections until it converges) 2. Define injections and setup in dpm panel. 3. I set up interaction with continuous phase. Some posts have suggested between 10-40, I usually use 3. Is this correct. "" It is correct. contineous phase iterations/DPM iterations cann't be very high. However, upto 10 should be fine. Lower the number, more computional resources. Actualy, 1 is best if you have enough computational resources with your given case and time. ""And when I go to iterate, Fluent doesn't solve for the injections immediately, it iterates the coninuous phase to the point with which I set it at. When it finally gets to the injection, there is a spike in the residuals.(.. and yes I have problems with converging) So my questions are: 1. Are the steps I undertook correct, I mean I have to keep pressing the iterate button until the injections are introduced and sometimes it doesn't spike and converges immediatly? Is this possible? "" You set Conti/DPM iterations to 3 in DPM panel. It is fine. But I don't understand why you need to keep on pressing iteration button. Probably bcs untill first DPM iteration takes place, Fluent finds yr solution converged. In that case, lower the residue criteria and run your calculation with DPM ON. (Ideally, residue should be zero, however, not possible) Residue jumps when it attempts first DPM iteration. But after that it should come down and get steady. Probably some fluctuations. Well, that's why you need to find if you hv enough number of particles to get correct solution. By the way, what residue value you can achieve? ""2. How do you define the convergence. If you set the interactions with continuous phase high, then the continuous phase simply solves itself until it reaches its initial convergence regardless of where the residuals were at the point when the injections were introduced. Doesn't this mean that you can converge easily if you set the iterations per continuous phase to 1000, therefore wouldn't a lower value of iterations per continuous phase iterations be more accurate?"" Define covergence is a tricky question to answer. Convergence should be judged based on multiple criterias and residue check should be just one of them. One must also check critical solution parameters if that gives logical values and if that is steady . Check mass balance in Report panel. That should be zero or atleast 0.001. Interaction with contineous phase cannot be very high.What you understand is correct in this case. Lower value is better. If you set, Conti/DPM is 1000, we can't say the coupled solution is converged. It's just the gas phase.

 June 17, 2005, 10:21 Re: DPM coupling steps #3 Me Guest   Posts: n/a A correction to my reply. Conti/DPM iteration should be sufficient to allow contineous phase to absorb the change in momentum through drag term due to Discrete phase. During the initial DPM iterations, the jump in residue is higher but eventually it should die down. Make sure you perform sufficient iterations untill coupled solution is selfconsistant. In my reply, i wrote Conti/DPM should be mini and it should be best if you use 1. But i should be wronge there. Sorry about this.

 June 19, 2005, 18:50 Re: DPM coupling steps #4 kiao Guest   Posts: n/a Thanks for clarifying for me. I usually set convergence at 0.00001 to solve gas phase. After converging I turn on DPM coupling with conti/dpm iteraition of 3. I have to press iterate 3-4 times as the solution is already converged and I need to introduce the injections. Maybe i could lower the residuals again after the initial convergence. Do you think that is ok? thanks again

 June 20, 2005, 13:34 Re: DPM coupling steps #5 Me Guest   Posts: n/a Yes, and keep running solution until you reach to steady residue solution.

 June 23, 2005, 11:04 Re: DPM coupling steps #6 K. Jagus Guest   Posts: n/a I will reactivate this post since there are some things which are of interest to me. It is said here that iterations per DPM should be as low as possible. I am modelling fuel spray from pressure-swirl atomizer. I have many problems with obtaining results. However I read in fluent tutorail regarding DPM that for sprays number of iterations per DPM should be high, and they put 1000 there. This is rather contrary to what was said here. Now I am counting the case and I wait for those 1000 iterations, only then Fluent will inject particles. Also I am confused about number of particle streams. Since the spray is very fine shouldn,t I put there for example 1000 rather than 60 what tutorial says? Thank You very much for any suggestions.

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