what is under relaxation factor?
Hi all,
1. What is under relaxation factor? 2. what does its effect towards solution? 3. why we need to specify a lot of factor. i mean need 2 specify for example; mass,mom,energy,density,turbulent....... 4. How do we know the correct factor to be used? 5. Can anybody suggest where i can get properties for wood chips? properties such as thermo prop. like conductivity, porosity...... thanks in advance rayy 
Re: what is under relaxation factor?
Each of the variables(mass,mom,density) represents an equation the solver is trying to solve. Each iteration the values obtained for the variables should get closer and closer together  converge. FOR SIMPLE PROBLEMS ESPECIALLY COLD FLOWS WITHOUT COMBUSTION YOU SHOULD SIMPLY KEEP THE RELAXATION FACTORS AT DEFAULT.
Sometimes for many many reasons the solution can become unstable so a relaxation factor is used  takes part of value from previous iteration to dampen solution and cut out steep oscillations. If you are having convergence trouble start the solution on default then when it starts going to shit(becomes unstable) put pressure 0.2 momentum 0.5 turbulence KE 0.5 turbulence DR 0.5  this should be in the manual. This should sort out most issues much worse and you need a better mesh or something isn't correct. RELAXATION FACTORS MAKE SOLUTION TAKE ALOT LONGER TO CONVERGE SO ONLY USE WHEN YOU REALLY NEED TO. Generally start off without RF's then when solution becomes unstable later on bring them in where needed  whichever equations (residual graph) are unstable, meaning not a nice smooth line but up and down rapidly. Start off moving down from 1 to 0.8 or 0.8 to 0.6 etc. For energy equation start off with 0.9 it takes hundreds or thousands of iterations to converge with relaxation factors in. ALWAYS REMEMBER ALWAYS START WITH DEFAULTS. ONLY WHEN SOLUTION BECOMES UNSTABLE DO YOU RELUCTANTLY LOOK AT THE RESIDUALS AND BRING IN APPROPRIATE RF's. hope this helps 
Re: what is under relaxation factor?
very detail answer. Thanks Phil.

Combustion Relaxation Factors
I had to lower, my URFs for a combustion model in order to get it stable. Now, I am trying to increase them back to default to make them better.
Is there a particular order in which I should increase them so the solver which would help it converge easier? Thanks! Michelle 
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relaxation factor
hi,we have under relaxation factor(<1) and also over relaxation factor(>1).
how to adjust the factors is so complicated and cant be explained easily. you can visit this address: www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150/05solv.ppt p.p 1617... i found it really useful. best regards. 
Under and over relaxation factors control the stability and convergence rate of the iterative process.The under relaxation factor increases the stability while over relaxation increases the rate of convergence.
xk+1 = w.xcal + (1w).xk yk+1 = w.ycal + (1w).yk For 0<w<1, the method is known as successive under relaxation. For 1<w<2, the method is known as successive over relaxation. where xcal is the value calculated based on xk 
helpful article
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Eects of underrelaxation factors on turbulent flow simulations

Underrelaxation factors
Hello,
I'm simulating a steady state case. Risiduals are fluctuating. And i have no choice else to reduce underrelaxation factors to hence stability. But, I really do not understand the influence of this factor. For example for the momentum in natural convection, if we reduce to 0.1, it is like we take the same old solution of the momentum equation and we ignore the new solution. Is it like this?? thank you an advance 
Help for CD Nozzle
I am trying to solve a flow in convergentdivergent nozzle. Initially due to divergence I reduced the under relaxation factor and obtained the result. My doubt is whether I can use the result obtained as it is or again if I have to change the URF to default and run the iteration again to get the result. Help me

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I think flows in nozzles should model with density based solver! In density based solver there isn't URF,instead you can reduce the courant number to controlling convergence! 
Nozzle with Pressure based solver
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But if you want to use pressure based solver, I think it's better that your problem converges with more URFs and 2nd order for less numerical error! 
Under relaxation factor
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Usually flows must converge with URFs close to defult,but when the solution isn't stable and diverge we can control the solution with reducing URFs! So when solution converge, it's better to continue solution with defult values and check the new results with previous results! So I think your problem must converge with bigger URF! 
Under relaxation factor
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Under relaxation factor
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It took a month to know which solver I should use.. You are right, it is density based solver for Flow in Nozzles. Shane 
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