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February 21, 2013, 11:06 
Negative alpha1 using interDyMFoam

#1 
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Anon
Join Date: Oct 2012
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Hi,
I am currently trying to do a simulation with a high speed water jet acting on rotating Pelton buckets. Unfortunately, the simulation crashes before giving me any results. The alpha1 minimum volume fractions are negative, and I wonder if this is what is making the simulation crash? I am not sure about the setup of fvSolution and fvSchemes, so my guess is that these cause the negative alphas. The log output of some early timesteps: Code:
Interface Courant Number mean: 1.624315938e07 max: 0.1091097517 Courant Number mean: 0.000375590931 max: 0.1091097517 deltaT = 3.491717999e07 Time = 1.533552435e06 solidBodyMotionFunctions::rotatingMotion::transformation(): Time = 1.533552435e06 transformation: ((0 0 0) (0.9999999987 (0 5.078761069e05 0))) AMI: Creating addressing and weights between 14964 source faces and 14964 target faces AMI: Patch source weights min/max/average = 0.9950716382, 1.394205984, 1.000575435 AMI: Patch target weights min/max/average = 0.9950442673, 1.365096275, 1.000564816 Execution time for mesh.update() = 1.58 s MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 5.44966545e07 Min(alpha1) = 1.791466825e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 5.823644789e07 Min(alpha1) = 1.038904174e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 6.197624128e07 Min(alpha1) = 7.825973141e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 6.571603467e07 Min(alpha1) = 4.473487596e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.01655311958, Final residual = 6.810976661e09, No Iterations 15 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.769268728e15, global = 1.368834199e17, cumulative = 4.282017598e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.003952141467, Final residual = 6.617702388e09, No Iterations 11 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.400029147e15, global = 1.456483218e16, cumulative = 4.282017612e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.001011700049, Final residual = 3.845282687e09, No Iterations 10 time step continuity errors : sum local = 8.217598588e16, global = 5.254782802e17, cumulative = 4.282017618e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.000554491584, Final residual = 6.972409284e09, No Iterations 9 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.490644691e15, global = 1.291619314e16, cumulative = 4.282017631e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0003465827588, Final residual = 5.393514794e09, No Iterations 9 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.153062298e15, global = 1.070930183e16, cumulative = 4.28201762e08 GAMGPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0002396514594, Final residual = 2.174711367e10, No Iterations 5 time step continuity errors : sum local = 4.64927874e17, global = 3.972436362e19, cumulative = 4.28201762e08 ExecutionTime = 223.19 s ClockTime = 233 s Interface Courant Number mean: 1.916717685e07 max: 0.1287661148 Courant Number mean: 0.0004432945119 max: 0.1287661148 deltaT = 4.019038676e07 Time = 1.935456303e06 solidBodyMotionFunctions::rotatingMotion::transformation(): Time = 1.935456303e06 transformation: ((0 0 0) (0.9999999979 (0 6.409771126e05 0))) AMI: Creating addressing and weights between 14964 source faces and 14964 target faces AMI: Patch source weights min/max/average = 0.9932927434, 1.400417156, 1.000607698 AMI: Patch target weights min/max/average = 0.9925058446, 1.363865653, 1.000594273 Execution time for mesh.update() = 1.59 s MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 7.002037891e07 Min(alpha1) = 3.274013142e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 7.432472314e07 Min(alpha1) = 6.563983597e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 7.862906737e07 Min(alpha1) = 1.433173356e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 8.293341161e07 Min(alpha1) = 1.93310652e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.01412494318, Final residual = 5.132243665e09, No Iterations 15 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.437750713e15, global = 1.507869969e17, cumulative = 4.282017618e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.003289228668, Final residual = 8.303451587e09, No Iterations 11 time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.021746186e15, global = 1.823752452e16, cumulative = 4.282017637e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0009262395848, Final residual = 9.932632803e09, No Iterations 9 time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.455684309e15, global = 3.964969215e16, cumulative = 4.282017676e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0004916397871, Final residual = 6.729308374e09, No Iterations 9 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.664547207e15, global = 1.628362513e16, cumulative = 4.282017693e08 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.000302596381, Final residual = 4.941746421e09, No Iterations 9 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.222443575e15, global = 1.240361068e16, cumulative = 4.28201768e08 GAMGPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0002065366047, Final residual = 1.986903846e10, No Iterations 5 time step continuity errors : sum local = 4.914866401e17, global = 3.566772216e19, cumulative = 4.28201768e08 ExecutionTime = 252.05 s ClockTime = 263 s Code:
/** C++ **\  =========    \\ / F ield  OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox   \\ / O peration  Version: 2.1.1   \\ / A nd  Web: www.OpenFOAM.org   \\/ M anipulation   \**/ FoamFile { version 2.0; format ascii; class dictionary; location "system"; object fvSolution; } // * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * // solvers { pcorr { solver PCG; preconditioner { preconditioner GAMG; tolerance 1e05; relTol 0; smoother DICGaussSeidel; nPreSweeps 0; nPostSweeps 2; nFinestSweeps 2; cacheAgglomeration false; nCellsInCoarsestLevel 10; agglomerator faceAreaPair; mergeLevels 1; } tolerance 1e05; relTol 0; maxIter 100; } p_rgh { solver GAMG; tolerance 1e08; relTol 0; smoother DIC; nPreSweeps 0; nPostSweeps 2; nFinestSweeps 2; cacheAgglomeration true; nCellsInCoarsestLevel 10; agglomerator faceAreaPair; mergeLevels 1; } p_rghFinal { solver PCG; preconditioner { preconditioner GAMG; tolerance 2e09; relTol 0; nVcycles 2; smoother DICGaussSeidel; nPreSweeps 2; nPostSweeps 2; nFinestSweeps 2; cacheAgglomeration true; nCellsInCoarsestLevel 10; agglomerator faceAreaPair; mergeLevels 1; } tolerance 2e09; relTol 0; maxIter 20; } U { solver smoothSolver; smoother GaussSeidel; tolerance 1e06; relTol 0; nSweeps 1; } } PIMPLE { momentumPredictor no; nCorrectors 6; nNonOrthogonalCorrectors 0; nAlphaCorr 1; nAlphaSubCycles 4; cAlpha 1.5; correctPhi no; } relaxationFactors { fields { } equations { "U.*" 1; } } // ************************************************************************* // Code:
/** C++ **\  =========    \\ / F ield  OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox   \\ / O peration  Version: 2.1.1   \\ / A nd  Web: www.OpenFOAM.org   \\/ M anipulation   \**/ FoamFile { version 2.0; format ascii; class dictionary; location "system"; object fvSchemes; } // * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * // ddtSchemes { default Euler; } gradSchemes { default Gauss linear; } divSchemes { div(rho*phi,U) Gauss upwind; div(phi,alpha) Gauss vanLeer; div(phirb,alpha) Gauss interfaceCompression; } laplacianSchemes { default Gauss linear corrected; } interpolationSchemes { default linear; } snGradSchemes { default corrected; } fluxRequired { default no; p_rgh; pcorr; alpha; } // ************************************************************************* // 

February 21, 2013, 12:43 

#2 
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Anton Kidess
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I don't think so. The values are so small that they shouldn't be causing any problems.
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February 22, 2013, 05:58 

#3 
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Anon
Join Date: Oct 2012
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Rep Power: 5 
Hi,
Thank you for your response! In that case there must be another reason for the simulation to crash. I get the error message: Code:
[1] #0 Foam::error::printStack(Foam::Ostream&) in "/opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/lib/libOpenFOAM.so" [1] #1 Foam::sigFpe::sigHandler(int) in "/opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/lib/libOpenFOAM.so" [1] #2 in "/lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6" [1] #3 Foam::divide(Foam::Field<double>&, double const&, Foam::UList<double> const&) in "/opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/lib/libOpenFOAM.so" [1] #4 [1] in "/opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/bin/interDyMFoam" [1] #5 __libc_start_main in "/lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6" [1] #6 [1] in "/opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/bin/interDyMFoam" [IEPT0938:10436] *** Process received signal *** [IEPT0938:10436] Signal: Floating point exception (8) [IEPT0938:10436] Signal code: (6) [IEPT0938:10436] Failing at address: 0x3e9000028c4 [IEPT0938:10436] [ 0] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(+0x364a0) [0x7f5d484a84a0] [IEPT0938:10436] [ 1] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(gsignal+0x35) [0x7f5d484a8425] [IEPT0938:10436] [ 2] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(+0x364a0) [0x7f5d484a84a0] [IEPT0938:10436] [ 3] /opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/lib/libOpenFOAM.so(_ZN4Foam6divideERNS_5FieldIdEERKdRKNS_5UListIdEE+0x24) [0x7f5d495e3754] [IEPT0938:10436] [ 4] interDyMFoam() [0x427714] [IEPT0938:10436] [ 5] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(__libc_start_main+0xed) [0x7f5d4849376d] [IEPT0938:10436] [ 6] interDyMFoam() [0x42f14d] [IEPT0938:10436] *** End of error message ***  mpirun noticed that process rank 1 with PID 10436 on node IEPT0938 exited on signal 8 (Floating point exception).  Code:
Interface Courant Number mean: 2.578325543e06 max: 0.1973915059 Courant Number mean: 0.001834300267 max: 0.5267375298 deltaT = 1.428571429e06 Time = 0.0003242857143 solidBodyMotionFunctions::rotatingMotion::transformation(): Time = 0.0003242857143 transformation: ((0 0 0) (0.9999423314 (0 0.01073936544 0))) AMI: Creating addressing and weights between 14964 source faces and 14964 target faces AMI: Patch source weights min/max/average = 0.1315257649, 1.892722733, 1.003533756 AMI: Patch target weights min/max/average = 0.07925273668, 1.723012618, 1.002725914 Execution time for mesh.update() = 1.77 s MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 0.0001384376939 Min(alpha1) = 1.218465399e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 0.000138641559 Min(alpha1) = 3.245414137e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 0.0001388454241 Min(alpha1) = 3.091100792e19 Max(alpha1) = 1 GAMG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0002908184194, Final residual = 1.591419563e06, No Iterations 4 time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.816358047e11, global = 1.740532506e12, cumulative = 4.267707731e07 GAMGPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 6.862589785e05, Final residual = 4.269590466e10, No Iterations 5 time step continuity errors : sum local = 4.889981776e15, global = 1.051027885e16, cumulative = 4.26770773e07 ExecutionTime = 3892.75 s ClockTime = 4152 s Interface Courant Number mean: 2.588344877e06 max: 0.1973759562 Courant Number mean: 0.001834365716 max: 0.5267375298 deltaT = 1.428571429e06 Time = 0.0003257142857 solidBodyMotionFunctions::rotatingMotion::transformation(): Time = 0.0003257142857 transformation: ((0 0 0) (0.9999418221 (0 0.01078667359 0))) AMI: Creating addressing and weights between 14964 source faces and 14964 target faces AMI: Patch source weights min/max/average = 4.265623869e06, 1.919686291, 1.003500292 AMI: Patch target weights min/max/average = 0, 1.724940936, 1.00242754 Execution time for mesh.update() = 2.1 s MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 0.0001390492891 Min(alpha1) = 1.396734536e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 0.0001392531541 Min(alpha1) = 7.3958564e21 Max(alpha1) = 1 MULES: Solving for alpha1 Phase1 volume fraction = 0.0001394570191 Min(alpha1) = 2.633820368e20 Max(alpha1) = 1 fvSolution: Code:
/** C++ **\  =========    \\ / F ield  OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox   \\ / O peration  Version: 2.1.1   \\ / A nd  Web: www.OpenFOAM.org   \\/ M anipulation   \**/ FoamFile { version 2.0; format ascii; class dictionary; location "system"; object fvSolution; } // * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * // solvers { pcorr { solver PCG; preconditioner { preconditioner GAMG; tolerance 1e05; relTol 0; smoother DICGaussSeidel; nPreSweeps 0; nPostSweeps 2; nFinestSweeps 2; cacheAgglomeration false; nCellsInCoarsestLevel 10; agglomerator faceAreaPair; mergeLevels 1; } tolerance 1e05; relTol 0; maxIter 100; } p_rgh { solver GAMG; tolerance 1e08; relTol 0.01; smoother DIC; nPreSweeps 0; nPostSweeps 2; nFinestSweeps 2; cacheAgglomeration true; nCellsInCoarsestLevel 10; agglomerator faceAreaPair; mergeLevels 1; } p_rghFinal { solver PCG; preconditioner { preconditioner GAMG; tolerance 2e09; relTol 0; nVcycles 2; smoother DICGaussSeidel; nPreSweeps 2; nPostSweeps 2; nFinestSweeps 2; cacheAgglomeration true; nCellsInCoarsestLevel 10; agglomerator faceAreaPair; mergeLevels 1; } tolerance 2e09; relTol 0; maxIter 20; } U { solver smoothSolver; smoother GaussSeidel; tolerance 1e06; relTol 0; nSweeps 1; } } PIMPLE { momentumPredictor no; nCorrectors 2; nNonOrthogonalCorrectors 0; nAlphaCorr 1; nAlphaSubCycles 3; cAlpha 1.5; correctPhi no; pRefPoint (0.0013 0.0017 0.0017); pRefValue 1e5; } relaxationFactors { fields { } equations { "U.*" 1; } } // ************************************************************************* // Code:
/** C++ **\  =========    \\ / F ield  OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox   \\ / O peration  Version: 2.1.1   \\ / A nd  Web: www.OpenFOAM.org   \\/ M anipulation   \**/ FoamFile { version 2.0; format ascii; class dictionary; location "system"; object fvSchemes; } // * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * // ddtSchemes { default Euler; } gradSchemes { default Gauss linear; } divSchemes { div(rho*phi,U) Gauss vanLeerV; div(phi,alpha) Gauss vanLeer; div(phirb,alpha) Gauss vanLeer; } laplacianSchemes { default Gauss linear corrected; } interpolationSchemes { default linear; } snGradSchemes { default corrected; } fluxRequired { default no; p_rgh; pcorr; alpha; } // ************************************************************************* // 

February 22, 2013, 06:08 

#4 
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Anton Kidess
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If you're still having problems, try the following:
Test maxAlphaCo=0.1. Keep the momentum predictor enabled. Try relTol=0 on p_rgh, and finally try running GAMG with pure GaussSeidel instead of using DIC.
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February 22, 2013, 06:27 

#5 
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Anon
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Thank you very much for your quick reply! I will try that and let you know if it works or not.


February 22, 2013, 09:08 

#6 
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Anon
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Crashed again unfortunately, at the same time as before. Does the error message make any sense?
Code:
[1] #0 Foam::error::printStack(Foam::Ostream&) at ??:? [1] #1 Foam::sigFpe::sigHandler(int) at ??:? [1] #2 in "/lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6" [1] #3 at symmTensorField.C:? [1] #4 [1] at ??:? [1] #5 [1] at ??:? [1] #6 [1] at ??:? [1] #7 __libc_start_main in "/lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6" [1] #8 [1] at ??:? [IEPT0955:30806] *** Process received signal *** [IEPT0955:30806] Signal: Floating point exception (8) [IEPT0955:30806] Signal code: (6) [IEPT0955:30806] Failing at address: 0x3e900007856 [IEPT0955:30806] [ 0] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(+0x364a0) [0x7ff907d934a0] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 1] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(gsignal+0x35) [0x7ff907d93425] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 2] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(+0x364a0) [0x7ff907d934a0] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 3] /opt/openfoam211/platforms/linux64GccDPOpt/lib/libOpenFOAM.so(+0x3ac9c4) [0x7ff908ee19c4] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 4] interDyMFoam() [0x4782e2] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 5] interDyMFoam() [0x478844] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 6] interDyMFoam() [0x42a9e0] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 7] /lib/x86_64linuxgnu/libc.so.6(__libc_start_main+0xed) [0x7ff907d7e76d] [IEPT0955:30806] [ 8] interDyMFoam() [0x42f14d] [IEPT0955:30806] *** End of error message ***  mpirun noticed that process rank 1 with PID 30806 on node IEPT0955 exited on signal 8 (Floating point exception).  jonerivr@IEPT0955:~/OpenFOAM/jonerivr2.1.1/run/donutmesh13$ 1. I am simulating with turbulenceProperties set to laminar, while a turbulence model should in reality be applied. 2. I have a symmetryplane along the jet and have heard that this BC sometimes causes instabilities with multiphasesimulations. Does this sound reasonable? I will try to run some more simulations during the weekend. For k and epsilon i will use: k=2.45504; //k=(2/3)(Uref*Ti)², Ti=0,05 turb intensity (Versteeg, 2007) epsilon=255.38893; //epsilon=0,0845^(3/4)*(k^(3/2))/(0,07L) L=Diameter of jet=0,04 

February 22, 2013, 09:57 

#7  
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Olivier
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: France, grenoble
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Hello,
You are using interDyMFoam with AMI i guess. On your last iteration befor crash, you get : Quote:
Solution: either improve your mesh, or lower your time stepping a bit may help. regards, olivier 

February 22, 2013, 10:06 

#8  
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Anon
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Quote:
As you can see in the screenshot below, the AMIpatches are not perfectly circular (AMI1 and AMI2 showing). I guess that might be what is causing it to crash? I guess I should go back to snappyHexMesh then, and refine the AMIinterface further. 

February 22, 2013, 10:17 

#9 
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Olivier
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hello,
Finer interface doesn't help here (and this may even be worst !). What's matter is your mesh should not overlap or create hole: try a different "matchTolerance" in your boundary file, and check your geometry (interface should be circular). And if you want good result with AMI, try to use an more uniform mesh at interface, i.e not a fine on one side, and coarse on the other. regards, olivier 

February 22, 2013, 10:46 

#10  
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Anon
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Quote:
So you mean that if I increase the matchTolerance, e.g. from 0.0001 to 0.001, my simulation might be more stable? The problem is that the interface is not perfectly circular. I tried to adjust the settings in snappyHexMeshDict, but I couldn't figure out how to resolve it. The mesh in the interface gets affected by the geometries around, resulting in "bumps" several places around the interface. Please see the attached images for explanation. Any tips and tricks to improve my mesh and simulation are greatly appreciated! Regards, Jone Whole domain, rotating region with buckets and stationary part with water jet: "Bump" created in the AMIinterface because of buckets: 

February 26, 2013, 05:13 

#11 
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Christian Lucas
Join Date: Aug 2009
Location: Braunschweig, Germany
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Hi,
have you tried using div(phi,alpha) Gauss vanLeer01 this scheme should bound alpha between 0 and 1 Regards, Christian 

February 26, 2013, 05:39 

#12  
Member
Anon
Join Date: Oct 2012
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Quote:
I am currently working on making a better mesh, hope to achieve this today so I can try running the simulation again. It turns out that a circular AMIinterface is difficult to obtain together with the refinements I want, but I think I will manage somehow. 

February 27, 2013, 03:50 

#13 
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Anon
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I finally got the simulation running, but I discovered some weird behavior of the flow so far.
1. The jet gets cut when meeting the AMIinterface, spreading along the AMIpatches on both sides (picture 1). 2. A hole is created in the isovolume at the jet inlet (picture 2). Still, when I check the value of alpha1 graphically in paraView (see picture 3), it seems that alpha1 has the max value in those cells. Has anyone seen this type of behavior before? Regards, Jone Picture 1: Picture 2: Picture 3: 

March 1, 2013, 07:59 

#14 
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Anon
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I wonder if anyone has an idea of what is causing these effects?
There seems to be a strong diffusion of the jet. The behavior along the symmetryPlane is very strange, as I would expect the water to have the maximum speed (38.38ms1) along this. Problematic effects:
Here is a picture with another mesh. It shows an isovolume with 0.1<alpha1<1: The same jet with the symmetryPlane facing up: 

March 2, 2013, 11:26 

#15 
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Anon
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Anyone?
I tried to check the effect of the symmetryPlane by replacing it with zeroGradient for U, p_rgh and alpha1. As you can see from the pictures it looks a lot better (though far from perfect) with the zeroGradient BC. Is there a bug in the symmetryPlanecondition? symmetryPlane BC applied to patch: zeroGradient BC applied to patch: 

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