# Iterative methods

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- | + | We seek the solution to the linear system of equations <br> | |

- | :<math> | + | :<math> Ax = b </math> <br> |

- | After ''k'' iterations we obtain an | + | Iterative methods, unlike direct methods, generate a sequence of approximate solutions to the system that (hopefully) converges to the exact solution. After ''k'' iterations, we obtain an approximation to the exact solution as: <br> |

- | :<math> Ax^{(k)} = | + | :<math> Ax^{(k)} = b - r^{(k)}, </math><br> |

where <math> r^{(k)} </math> is the residual after ''k'' iterations. <br> | where <math> r^{(k)} </math> is the residual after ''k'' iterations. <br> | ||

- | Defining | + | Defining <br> |

:<math> \varepsilon ^{(k)} = x - x^{(k)} </math> <br> | :<math> \varepsilon ^{(k)} = x - x^{(k)} </math> <br> | ||

- | as the difference between the exact and approaximate solution | + | as the difference between the exact and approaximate solution, we obtain <br> |

- | we obtain | + | :<math> A\varepsilon ^{(k)} = r^{(k)}. </math> <br> |

- | :<math> A\varepsilon ^{(k)} = r^{(k)} </math> <br> | + | The purpose of iterations is to drive this residual to zero. |

- | + | ||

===Stationary Iterative Methods=== | ===Stationary Iterative Methods=== | ||

- | Iterative methods that can be expressed in the simple form | + | Iterative methods that can be expressed in the simple form |

+ | |||

:<math> | :<math> | ||

- | x^{(k)} = Bx^{(k)} + c | + | x^{(k+1)} = Bx^{(k)} + c |

- | </math> | + | </math> |

+ | |||

+ | when neither '''B''' nor '''c''' depend upon the iteration count (k), the iterative method is called stationary iterative method. Some of the stationary iterative methods are | ||

- | |||

#Jacobi method | #Jacobi method | ||

#Gauss-Seidel method | #Gauss-Seidel method | ||

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#Symmetric Successive Overrelaxation (SSOR) method | #Symmetric Successive Overrelaxation (SSOR) method | ||

+ | The convergence of such iterative methods can be investigated using the [[Fixed point theorem]]. | ||

===Nonstationary Iterative Methods=== | ===Nonstationary Iterative Methods=== |

## Latest revision as of 14:17, 19 December 2008

We seek the solution to the linear system of equations

Iterative methods, unlike direct methods, generate a sequence of approximate solutions to the system that (hopefully) converges to the exact solution. After *k* iterations, we obtain an approximation to the exact solution as:

where is the residual after *k* iterations.

Defining

as the difference between the exact and approaximate solution, we obtain

The purpose of iterations is to drive this residual to zero.

### Stationary Iterative Methods

Iterative methods that can be expressed in the simple form

when neither **B** nor **c** depend upon the iteration count (k), the iterative method is called stationary iterative method. Some of the stationary iterative methods are

- Jacobi method
- Gauss-Seidel method
- Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method and
- Symmetric Successive Overrelaxation (SSOR) method

The convergence of such iterative methods can be investigated using the Fixed point theorem.

### Nonstationary Iterative Methods

When during the iterations **B** and **c** changes during the iterations, the method is called Nonstationary Iterative Method. Typically, constants **B** and **c** are computed by taking inner products of residuals or other vectors arising from the iterative method.

Some examples are:

- Conjugate Gradient Method (CG)
- MINRES and SYMMLQ
- Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES)
- BiConjugate Gradient (BiCG)
- Quasi-Minimal Residual (QMR)
- Conjugate Gradient Squared Method (CGS)
- BiConjugate Gradient Stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB)
- Chebyshev Iteration