# Linear eddy viscosity models

These are turbulence models in which the Reynolds stresses as obtained from a Reynolds averaging of the Navier-Stokes equations are modelled by a linear constitutive relationship with the mean flow straining field, such as:

$- \rho \left\langle u_{i} u_{j} \right\rangle = \mu_{t} \left[ S_{ij} - \frac{1}{3} S_{kk} \delta_{ij} \right]$

where $\mu_{t}$ is the coefficient termed turbulence "viscosity" (also called the eddy viscosity), and $S_{ij}$ is the mean strain rate defined by:

$S_{ij}= \frac{1}{2} \left[ \frac{\partial U_{i}}{\partial x_{j}} + \frac{\partial U_{j}}{\partial x_{i}} \right]$

This linear relationship is also known as the Boussinesq hypothesis. For a deep discussion on this linear constitutive relationship, check section Introduction to turbulence/Reynolds averaged equations.