# Near-wall treatment for LES models

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$D(y^+;A^+,m,n)=[1 - \exp(-{y^+}^n/{A^+}^n)]^m.$
Various different values for $A^+$, $m$, and $n$ have been used. The use of this formulation requires the accurate computation of wall shear (in order to compute $y^+$), which has generally been accomplished by high grid resolution in near-wall regions. The legitimacy of terming such simulations as true LES's has been debated, as in the opinion of some the additional resolution is transitioning the simulation into a DNS in near-wall regions. At the very least, it is probably a violation of the "spirit" of LES, so models that do not require ad hoc damping have been sought.