Near-wall treatment for k-omega models
As described in Two equation turbulence models low and high reynolds number treatments are possible.
Standard wall functions
There are two possible ways of implementing wall functions in a finite volume code:
- Additional source term in the momentum equations.
- Modification of turbulent viscosity in cells adjacent to solid walls.
The source term in the first approach is simply the difference between logarithmic and linear interpolation of velocity gradient multiplied by viscosity (the difference between shear stresses). The second approach does not attempt to reproduce the correct velocity gradient. Instead, turbulent viscosity is modified in such a way as to guarantee the correct shear stress.
Using the compact version of log-law
where is equivalent to additive constants in Law of the wall, and using we obtain:
On the other hand, the linear interpolation for shear stress, remembering that , is:
where and are the velocity and the position of the cell centroid in the first cell adjacent to the wall.
Comparing the above equations we obtain an expression for turbulent viscosity in the log-law region:
Note that has been been incorporated in . The latter remains the only unknown in the equation and has to be estimated for the current velocity field. In the standard approach this cannot be done explicitly and instead an implicit way of obtaining has to be employed.
After multiplying log law (1) by and after reorganising some terms we get:
This equation can be solved numerically with respect to for example via root searching algorithms e.g. Newton method for specified , and . One iteration in a Newton method for (3) is
Thus obtained is then substituted to (2) Eventually the estimated serves also to define the values of turbulent quantities in the cell adjacent to the wall:
which are the values for and according to Wilcox(1993) asymptotic analysis of log layer. These wall functions for and are the results of the solution of model equation for the logarithmic layer.
The above methodology is known to produce spurious results in separated flows, where, by definition, at the separation and reattachment point. Many extension of this approach has been proposed.
Automatic wall treatments
Menter suggested a mechanism that switches automatically between HRN and LRN treatments.
The full description to appear soon. The idea is based on blending:
Both k- omega models (std and sst) are available as low-Reynolds-number models as well as high-Reynolds-number models.
The wall boundary conditions for the k equation in the k- omega models are treated in the same way as the k equation is treated when enhanced wall treatments are used with the k- epsilon models.
This means that all boundary conditions for
- wall-function meshes will correspond to the wall function approach, while for the
- fine meshes, the appropriate low-Reynolds-number boundary conditions will be applied.
In Fluent, that means:
If the Transitional Flows option is enabled in the Viscous Model panel, low-Reynolds-number variants will be used, and, in that case, mesh guidelines should be the same as for the enhanced wall treatment
(y+ at the wall-adjacent cell should be on the order of y+ = 1. However, a higher y+ is acceptable as long as it is well inside the viscous sublayer (y+ < 4 to 5).)
If Transitional Flows option is not active, then the mesh guidelines should be the same as for the wall functions.
(For [...] wall functions, each wall-adjacent cell's centroid should be located within the log-law layer, 30 < y+ < 300. A y+ value close to the lower bound y+ = 30 is most desirable.)
- Wilcox, D. (1993), "Turbulence Modeling for CFD", 'DCV Industries, Inc. La Canada, California'.
- Bredberg, J. (2000), "On the Wall Boundary Condition for Turbulence Models", 'Internal Report, Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Tecyhnology Gotebord, Sweden'.
- Menter, F., Esch, T. (2001), "Elements of industrial heat transfer predictions", 'COBEM 2001, 16th Brazilian Congress of Mechanical Engineering.'.
- ANSYS (2006), "FLUENT Documentation", .