1. Those that use the physical hypothesis of scale similarity (Bardina et al., 1980)
2. Those derived by formal series expansions (Clark et al., 1979)
3. Mixed models, which are based on linear combinations of the eddy-viscosity and structural types
4. Dynamic structure models (non-viscosity version)
- J. Bardina and J. H. Ferziger and W. C. Reynolds (1980), "Improved subgrid scale models for large eddy simulation", AIAA Paper No. 80-1357.
- R. A. Clark and J. H. Ferziger and W. C. Reynolds (1979), "Evaluation of subgrid-scale models using an accurately simulated turbulent flow", J. Fluid Mech..