# Turbulence free-stream boundary conditions

(Difference between revisions)
 Revision as of 23:52, 28 September 2006 (view source)Eagle (Talk | contribs)← Older edit Revision as of 07:03, 29 September 2006 (view source)Jola (Talk | contribs) m (Reverted edit of Eagle, changed back to last version by Jola)Newer edit → Line 40: Line 40: Where $C_\mu$ is a turbulence model constant which usually has a value of $0.09$, $k$ is the turbulent energy and $l$ is the [[turbulent length scale]] Where $C_\mu$ is a turbulence model constant which usually has a value of $0.09$, $k$ is the turbulent energy and $l$ is the [[turbulent length scale]] - *[http://malibu_hotels-nzng.wildofporn.com/index.html http://malibu_hotels-nzng.wildofporn.com/index.html: Information to help you plan your vacation in Malibu.] + ====From the eddy viscosity ratio==== ====From the eddy viscosity ratio====

## Revision as of 07:03, 29 September 2006

In most CFD simulations it is necessary to specify values of the turbulence variables at the inlets. For example, if you are using a $k-\epsilon$ model you have to specify values of $k$ and $\epsilon$ at the inlets. This is often difficult and a source of uncertainty since the incoming turbulence is rarely known exactly. Most often you are forced to make a more or less educated guess of the incoming turbulence.

Estimating the turbulence model variables, like turbulent energy, dissipation or Reynolds stresses, directly is often difficult. Instead it is easier to think in terms of variables like the incoming turbulence intensity and turbulent length scale or eddy viscosity ratio. These properties are more intuitive to understand and can more easily be related to physical characteristics of the problem. For some guidelines on how these variables can be estimated see the respective CFD-Wiki page describing them.

## Formulas for computing the turbulence model variables

Once an appropriate turbulence intensity and turbulent length scale or eddy viscosity ratio has been estimated the primitive turbulence model variables can be computed from the following formulas:

### Turbulent energy

The turbulent energy, $k$, can be computed as:

$k = \frac{3}{2} \; (U \, I)^2$

Where $U$ is the mean flow velocity and $I$ is the turbulence intensity.

### Dissipation rate

The turbulent dissipation rate, $\epsilon$, can be computed using the following formulas:

#### From the turbulent length scale

$\epsilon = C_\mu^\frac{3}{4} \, \frac{k^\frac{3}{2}}{l}$

Where $C_\mu$ is a turbulence model constant which usually has a value of $0.09$, $k$ is the turbulent energy and $l$ is the turbulent length scale

#### From the eddy viscosity ratio

$\epsilon = C_\mu \, \frac{\rho \, k^2}{\mu} \, (\frac{\mu_t}{\mu})^{-1}$

Where $C_\mu$ is a turbulence model constant which usually has a value of $0.09$, $k$ is the turbulent energy, $\rho$ is the density, $\mu$is the molecular dynamic viscosity and $\frac{\mu_t}{\mu}$ is the eddy viscosity ratio.

### Specific dissipation rate

The specific turbulent dissipation rate, $\omega$, can be computed using the following formulas:

#### From the turbulent length scale

$\omega = C_\mu^{-\frac{1}{4}} \, \frac{\sqrt{k}}{l}$

Where $C_\mu$ is a turbulence model constant which usually has a value of $0.09$, $k$ is the turbulent energy and $l$ is the turbulent length scale

#### From the eddy viscosity ratio

$\omega = \frac{\rho \, k}{\mu} \, (\frac{\mu_t}{\mu})^{-1}$

Where $k$ is the turbulent energy, $\rho$ is the density, $\mu$is the molecular dynamic viscosity and $\frac{\mu_t}{\mu}$ is the eddy viscosity ratio.