# Turbulence model parameters and equations

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 October 19, 2012, 10:02 Turbulence model parameters and equations #1 New Member   Maarten Join Date: Sep 2012 Posts: 3 Rep Power: 13 Dear CFD users, Right now I´m working on a CFD computation for external flow around a very streamlined car. I have some questions regarding the turbulence parameters. I´ll first specify what formulas I used to calculate some parameters. FYI, I use FineOpen of Numeca. I will either use the SA or Mentor-SST k –omega (Extended wall) model. Description of the stream: A free steam around a car driving in the open i.e. on the road. So it is an external flow. The free stream velocity is 25 m/s. There are a couple parameters I have to specify in the CFD software program which im not complete sure about, being: Boundary conditions: for the k-omega model: k and for the Spalart-Allmaras model: turbulent viscosity Initial conditions: for the k-omega model: k and for the Spalart-Allmaras model: ratio (taken as 1) So it comes down to calculating/guestimating these parameters. I used the following formulas (all in SI units) to calculate these parameters: (From Numeca FineOpen manual) (Also from FineOpen manual) with being the dynamic (molecular) viscosity with and I took (Numeca specifies in the manual that a typical value for this ratio is 1 for external flows). So before I can calculate , I first calculate k. Turbulent (eddy) viscosity (So before calculating this parameter, I first calculate k, then and then ) Using the above mentioned formulas, I was able to calculate all the needed parameters. Still I’m not sure if these formulas are correct or maybe are not valid in every case. However, when I just assume these formulas are correct I calculated k, and . This yielded k = 0.718, and . Do these values make sense in anyway, or are they completely out of range? The actual reason I’m posting this question is to validate our computation. One year ago, a group performed the same computation for the exact same car. This yielded a drag force of about 40N. The problem we are having now is that the drag force is in the order of 10^4 Newton. Obviously this does not make sense. Right now the mesh I runned in FineOpen contains about 18 million cells with refinements near the car itself, behind the car, beneath the car etc. etc. So what I’m specifically asking: 1) Can someone verify the method I use, especially the formulas I use 2) What may cause the problem of a way too high drag value? 3) Do the values of k and epsilon make sense? I know these are a lot of questions, but any help is much appreciated. Thank you in advance, Maximus

 October 24, 2012, 13:20 #2 New Member   Maarten Join Date: Sep 2012 Posts: 3 Rep Power: 13 Anyone any suggestions?