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Old   February 5, 2020, 18:02
Default Negative min alpha.water values
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Hello Foamers,

I am having a problem regarding Min(alpha.water) with a multiphase simulation I am running. I am using a modified interFoam solver, interThermalFoam, which additionally solves the transient heat equation, conduction and convection effects only. I additionally have modified the powerLaw viscosity model to be temperature dependent and not have a dependence on shear rate, essentially an Arrehenius based dependence with max and min values as specified by the powerLaw model. My simulation is supposed to mimic vitrification of a glassy metal via spin casting.

Here is my problem: Whenever I specify a velocity for the bottom part of my geometry, which is essentially a nozzle in atmosphere forcing liquid metal via pressure onto a translating metal surface (the bottom), I run into problems. If I specify a velocity that just makes the metal surface translate (x-direction only) the simulation returns increasingly negative Min(alpha.water) values with a very low delta t. Below are my B.C.s and example of simulation run that was stopped after a few time steps, any help would be appreciated.

Thank you all for your time.

/*--------------------------------*- C++ -*----------------------------------*\
| ========= | |
| \\ / F ield | OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox |
| \\ / O peration | Version: v1906 |
| \\ / A nd | Web: www.OpenFOAM.com |
| \\/ M anipulation | |
\*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
FoamFile
{
version 2.0;
format ascii;
class volVectorField;
location "0";
object U;
}
// * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * //

dimensions [0 1 -1 0 0 0 0];

internalField uniform (0 0 0);

boundaryField
{
atmosphere
{
type pressureInletOutletVelocity;
value uniform (0 0 0);
}
bottom
{
type fixedValue;
value uniform (15 0 0);
}
nozzle
{
type noSlip;
}
inlet
{
type pressureInletOutletVelocity;
value uniform (0 0 0);
}
defaultFaces
{
type empty;
}
}


// ************************************************** *********************** //
/*--------------------------------*- C++ -*----------------------------------*\
| ========= | |
| \\ / F ield | OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox |
| \\ / O peration | Version: v1906 |
| \\ / A nd | Web: www.OpenFOAM.com |
| \\/ M anipulation | |
\*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
FoamFile
{
version 2.0;
format ascii;
class volScalarField;
object p_rgh;
}
// * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * //

dimensions [1 -1 -2 0 0 0 0];

internalField uniform 0;

boundaryField
{
atmosphere
{
type totalPressure;
p0 uniform 0;
}
bottom
{
type fixedFluxPressure;
value uniform 0;
}
nozzle
{
type fixedFluxPressure;
value uniform 0;
}
inlet
{
type totalPressure;
p0 uniform 5751.8;
}
defaultFaces
{
type empty;
}
}

// ************************************************** *********************** //
/*--------------------------------*- C++ -*----------------------------------*\
| ========= | |
| \\ / F ield | OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox |
| \\ / O peration | Version: v1906 |
| \\ / A nd | Web: www.OpenFOAM.com |
| \\/ M anipulation | |
\*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
FoamFile
{
version 2.0;
format ascii;
class volScalarField;
location "0";
object T;
}
// * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * //

dimensions [0 0 0 1 0 0 0];

internalField uniform 0;

boundaryField
{
atmosphere
{
type fixedValue;
value uniform 298;
}
nozzle
{
type zeroGradient;
}
bottom
{
type externalWallHeatFluxTemperature;
mode coefficient;
Ta constant 298.0;
h uniform 1.1e5;
kappaMethod lookup;
kappa kappa;
value $internalField;
}
inlet
{
type fixedValue;
value uniform 1307;
}
defaultFaces
{
type empty;
}
}


// ************************************************** *********************** //
/*--------------------------------*- C++ -*----------------------------------*\
| ========= | |
| \\ / F ield | OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox |
| \\ / O peration | Version: v1906 |
| \\ / A nd | Web: www.OpenFOAM.com |
| \\/ M anipulation | |
\*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
FoamFile
{
version 2.0;
format ascii;
class volScalarField;
location "0";
object alpha.water;
}
// * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * //

dimensions [0 0 0 0 0 0 0];

internalField uniform 0;

boundaryField
{
atmosphere
{
type inletOutlet;
inletValue uniform 0;
value uniform 0;;
}
bottom
{
type constantAlphaContactAngle;
theta0 150;
limit gradient;
value uniform 0;
}
nozzle
{
type constantAlphaContactAngle;
theta0 150;
limit gradient;
value uniform 0;
}
inlet
{
type fixedValue;
value uniform 1;
}
defaultFaces
{
type empty;
}
}


// ************************************************** *********************** //



/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*\
| ========= | |
| \\ / F ield | OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox |
| \\ / O peration | Version: v1912 |
| \\ / A nd | Website: www.openfoam.com |
| \\/ M anipulation | |
\*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
Build : _f3950763fe-20191219 OPENFOAM=1912
Arch : "LSB;label=32;scalar=64"
Exec : interThermalFoam
Date : Feb 05 2020
Time : 17:00:23
Host : DESKTOP-B5UVSBO
PID : 2861
I/O : uncollated
Case : /home/nss95/Desktop/damBreakTemp
nProcs : 1
trapFpe: Floating point exception trapping enabled (FOAM_SIGFPE).
fileModificationChecking : Monitoring run-time modified files using timeStampMaster (fileModificationSkew 10)
allowSystemOperations : Allowing user-supplied system call operations

// * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * //
Create time

Create mesh for time = 0


PIMPLE: Operating solver in PISO mode

Reading field p_rgh

Reading field U

Reading field T

Reading/calculating face flux field phi

Reading transportProperties

Selecting incompressible transport model powerLaw
Selecting incompressible transport model Newtonian
Selecting turbulence model type laminar
Selecting laminar stress model Stokes

Reading g

Reading hRef
Calculating field g.h

No MRF models present

No finite volume options present
DICPCG: Solving for pcorr, Initial residual = 0, Final residual = 0, No Iterations 0
time step continuity errors : sum local = 0, global = 0, cumulative = 0
Courant Number mean: 0 max: 0

Starting time loop

Courant Number mean: 0 max: 0
Interface Courant Number mean: 0 max: 0
deltaT = 0.001
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 0, Final residual = 0, No Iterations 0
Phase-1 volume fraction = 0 Min(alpha.water) = 0 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = 0 Min(alpha.water) = 0 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 1, Final residual = 5.87982e-08, No Iterations 6
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.999113, Final residual = 2.42825e-08, No Iterations 9
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 1, Final residual = 2.52206e-08, No Iterations 9
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 1, Final residual = 9.16937e-08, No Iterations 1
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 1, Final residual = 0.00659292, No Iterations 2
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.95581, global = -0.737763, cumulative = -0.737763
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.999999, Final residual = 0.00775455, No Iterations 1
time step continuity errors : sum local = 3.47788e+06, global = 646621, cumulative = 646620
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.409376, Final residual = 7.18613e-06, No Iterations 20
time step continuity errors : sum local = 4460.06, global = -660.331, cumulative = 645960
ExecutionTime = 7.86 s ClockTime = 9 s

Courant Number mean: 928398 max: 1.32161e+08
Interface Courant Number mean: 0 max: 0
deltaT = 7.56652e-12
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 1, Final residual = 1.18692e-11, No Iterations 3
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000218744 Min(alpha.water) = -0.576842 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000218744 Min(alpha.water) = -0.576842 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 0.0486686, Final residual = 1.08462e-11, No Iterations 3
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.0887579, Final residual = 3.38205e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 0.257612, Final residual = 6.56259e-08, No Iterations 2
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 0.411961, Final residual = 8.53267e-09, No Iterations 1
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.999994, Final residual = 0.00974497, No Iterations 3
time step continuity errors : sum local = 0.00221802, global = 0.000627094, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0807894, Final residual = 0.000776551, No Iterations 9
time step continuity errors : sum local = 0.00103554, global = 0.000306792, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.031868, Final residual = 7.38287e-06, No Iterations 24
time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.56671e-05, global = 2.43125e-06, cumulative = 645960
ExecutionTime = 10.24 s ClockTime = 11 s

Courant Number mean: 0.0264945 max: 50.3371
Interface Courant Number mean: 0 max: 0
deltaT = 1.50317e-13
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 0.0509024, Final residual = 1.19413e-13, No Iterations 2
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000229843 Min(alpha.water) = -1.54965 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000229843 Min(alpha.water) = -1.54964 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 0.0171502, Final residual = 3.87952e-13, No Iterations 3
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.114066, Final residual = 1.82653e-12, No Iterations 3
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 0.0395344, Final residual = 5.42956e-13, No Iterations 3
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 0.154041, Final residual = 1.99874e-08, No Iterations 2
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.668253, Final residual = 0.00516689, No Iterations 3
time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.62005e-05, global = -4.03839e-06, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.315682, Final residual = 0.00254972, No Iterations 10
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.36149e-05, global = -1.05897e-06, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.138241, Final residual = 8.49688e-06, No Iterations 33
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.03922e-07, global = -1.76326e-08, cumulative = 645960
ExecutionTime = 12.71 s ClockTime = 14 s

Courant Number mean: 0.000426927 max: 0.720185
Interface Courant Number mean: 5.89003e-07 max: 0.0662629
deltaT = 1.71189e-13
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 0.0355032, Final residual = 7.98807e-13, No Iterations 2
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.00023841 Min(alpha.water) = -2.36978 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.00023841 Min(alpha.water) = -2.36978 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 0.0502059, Final residual = 3.47112e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.095408, Final residual = 5.02606e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 0.0301875, Final residual = 6.66403e-09, No Iterations 2
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 0.120533, Final residual = 1.26011e-10, No Iterations 1
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0782585, Final residual = 0.000525692, No Iterations 2
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.02794e-05, global = -1.41207e-06, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0381638, Final residual = 0.000235156, No Iterations 3
time step continuity errors : sum local = 4.6844e-06, global = -7.47883e-07, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0377733, Final residual = 5.67295e-06, No Iterations 24
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.14557e-07, global = -1.50729e-08, cumulative = 645960
ExecutionTime = 14.82 s ClockTime = 16 s

Courant Number mean: 0.000500818 max: 0.83912
Interface Courant Number mean: 1.26969e-06 max: 0.0754807
deltaT = 1.9159e-13
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 0.0379522, Final residual = 3.89675e-12, No Iterations 2
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.00024701 Min(alpha.water) = -3.30868 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.00024701 Min(alpha.water) = -3.30868 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 0.0550761, Final residual = 5.18637e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.10452, Final residual = 4.34478e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 0.0245794, Final residual = 3.58706e-09, No Iterations 2
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 0.115848, Final residual = 4.56571e-11, No Iterations 1
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0726095, Final residual = 0.000592158, No Iterations 3
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.65624e-05, global = 2.69826e-08, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0373299, Final residual = 0.000342475, No Iterations 9
time step continuity errors : sum local = 9.29672e-06, global = -1.6544e-07, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0362863, Final residual = 9.75058e-06, No Iterations 23
time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.72514e-07, global = 8.26641e-09, cumulative = 645960
ExecutionTime = 16.39 s ClockTime = 18 s

Courant Number mean: 0.000606457 max: 0.940436
Interface Courant Number mean: 4.67648e-06 max: 0.0914421
deltaT = 2.03725e-13
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 0.0382964, Final residual = 7.53972e-12, No Iterations 2
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000254955 Min(alpha.water) = -4.3082 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000254955 Min(alpha.water) = -4.3082 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 0.0450685, Final residual = 3.26617e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.0971156, Final residual = 3.03222e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 0.0159499, Final residual = 1.13621e-09, No Iterations 2
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 0.103358, Final residual = 1.74895e-11, No Iterations 1
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0798727, Final residual = 0.000668863, No Iterations 3
time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.13307e-05, global = 2.37689e-06, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0434441, Final residual = 0.000403978, No Iterations 9
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.1884e-05, global = 3.48073e-07, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0499491, Final residual = 8.73946e-06, No Iterations 25
time step continuity errors : sum local = 2.2294e-07, global = 2.06933e-08, cumulative = 645960
ExecutionTime = 18.85 s ClockTime = 21 s

Courant Number mean: 0.00066931 max: 1.00021
Interface Courant Number mean: 7.15504e-06 max: 0.121091
deltaT = 2.03682e-13
Time = 0.001

PIMPLE: iteration 1
smoothSolver: Solving for alpha.water, Initial residual = 0.0358848, Final residual = 6.33179e-12, No Iterations 2
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000262241 Min(alpha.water) = -5.30744 Max(alpha.water) = 1
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
MULES: Correcting alpha.water
Phase-1 volume fraction = -0.000262241 Min(alpha.water) = -5.30744 Max(alpha.water) = 1
smoothSolver: Solving for Ux, Initial residual = 0.0286544, Final residual = 1.21689e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uy, Initial residual = 0.0655785, Final residual = 1.60349e-08, No Iterations 2
smoothSolver: Solving for Uz, Initial residual = 0.00781814, Final residual = 2.88038e-10, No Iterations 2
DILUPBiCGStab: Solving for T, Initial residual = 0.0787011, Final residual = 9.75799e-12, No Iterations 1
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.105247, Final residual = 0.000788318, No Iterations 3
time step continuity errors : sum local = 1.92671e-05, global = 3.48142e-06, cumulative = 645960
DICPCG: Solving for p_rgh, Initial residual = 0.0597212, Final residual = 0.000584814, No Iterations 8
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