Revision as of 03:16, 24 January 2011 (view source)← Older edit Latest revision as of 01:33, 6 January 2012 (view source) (Blanked the page) (10 intermediate revisions not shown) Line 1: Line 1: - $Insert formula here$As its name means, gradient-based methods need the gradient of objective functions to design variables. The evaluation of gradient can be achieved by '''finite difference method''', '''linearized method''' or '''adjoint method'''. Both finite difference method and linearized method has a time-cost proportional to the number of design variables and not suitable for design optimization with a large number of design variables. Apart from that, finite difference method has a notorious disadvantage of subtraction cancellation and is not recommended for practical design application. - Suppose a cost function $J$ is defined as follows, - - $J=J(U,\alpha)$ - - where $U$ and $\alpha$ are the flow variable vector and the design variable vector respectively. $U$ and $\alpha$ are implicitly related through the flow equation, which is represented by a residual function driven to zero. - - ${R}(U(\alpha),\alpha)=0$ - - The sensitivity of the cost function $J$ with respect to the design variables $\alpha$, that is $\frac{D J }{D \alpha_{i}}$, is needed for design purpose. - - Finite difference method: - - Linearized method: - - Adjoint method: