Turbulence intensity

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 Revision as of 08:48, 10 October 2019 (view source)Bassus (Talk | contribs)m← Older edit Revision as of 10:41, 10 October 2019 (view source)Bassus (Talk | contribs) m (→References)Newer edit → Line 46: Line 46: {{reference-paper|author= Basse, N.T.|year=2017|title=Turbulence intensity and the friction factor for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow|rest=Fluids, vol. 2, 30}} {{reference-paper|author= Basse, N.T.|year=2017|title=Turbulence intensity and the friction factor for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow|rest=Fluids, vol. 2, 30}} - {{reference-paper|author= Basse, N.T.|year=2019|title=Turbulence Intensity Scaling: A Fugue|rest=Fluids, vol. 4, 180}} + {{reference-paper|author= Basse, N.T.|year=2019|title=Turbulence intensity scaling: A fugue|rest=Fluids, vol. 4, 180}}

Definition

The turbulence intensity, also often refered to as turbulence level, is defined as: $I \equiv \frac{u'}{U}$,

where $u'$ is the root-mean-square of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and $U$ is the mean velocity (Reynolds averaged).

If the turbulent energy, $k$, is known $u'$ can be computed as: $u' \equiv \sqrt{\frac{1}{3} \, ( u_x'^2 + u_y'^2 + u_z'^2 )} = \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}\, k}$ $U$ can be computed from the three mean velocity components $U_x$, $U_y$ and $U_z$ as: $U \equiv \sqrt{U_x^2 + U_y^2 + U_z^2}$

Estimating the turbulence intensity

When setting boundary conditions for a CFD simulation it is often necessary to estimate the turbulence intensity on the inlets. To do this accurately it is good to have some form of measurements or previous experince to base the estimate on. Here are a few examples of common estimations of the incoming turbulence intensity:

1. High-turbulence case: High-speed flow inside complex geometries like heat-exchangers and flow inside rotating machinery (turbines and compressors). Typically the turbulence intensity is between 5% and 20%
2. Medium-turbulence case: Flow in not-so-complex devices like large pipes, ventilation flows etc. or low speed flows (low Reynolds number). Typically the turbulence intensity is between 1% and 5%
3. Low-turbulence case: Flow originating from a fluid that stands still, like external flow across cars, submarines and aircrafts. Very high-quality wind-tunnels can also reach really low turbulence levels. Typically the turbulence intensity is very low, well below 1%.

Fully developed pipe flow

For fully developed pipe flow the turbulence intensity at the core can be estimated as : $I = 0.16 \; Re_{d_h}^{-\frac{1}{8}}$,

where $Re_{d_h}$ is the Reynolds number based on the pipe hydraulic diameter $d_h$.

Russo and Basse published a paper  where they derive turbulence intensity scaling laws based on CFD simulations and Princeton Superpipe measurements. The turbulence intensity over the pipe area is defined as an arithmetic mean (AM). The measurement-based scaling laws are: $I_{\rm Smooth~pipe~axis} = 0.0550 \; Re^{-0.0407}$ $I_{\rm Smooth~pipe~area,~AM} = 0.227 \; Re^{-0.100}$

Scaling using other turbulence intensity definitions is investigated in [3,4]. Here, it is also found that turbulence intensity scales with the friction factor, both for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow.