Some references which could be helpful:
 Giannakoglou K.C., Papadimitriou D.I., "Chapter 4: Adjoint Methods for Shape Optimization", in Optimization and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Editors: D. Thevenin, G. Janiga, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008 (ISBN 978-3-540-72152-9).
 O. Soto and R. Löhner, "On the Computation of Flow Sensitivities From Boundary Integrals", AIAA-04-0112 (2004).
 C. Othmer, "A continuous adjoint formulation for the computation of topological and surface sensitivities of ducted flows", Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, Vol. 58, pp. 861–877 (2008).
 K. Morimoto, Y. Suzuki, N. Kasagi, "Optimal Shape Design of Compact Heat Exchangers Based on Adjoint Analysis of Momentum and Heat Transfer", J. Therm. Sci. Tech., Vol. 5, No. 1, pp.24-35 (2010).