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A boundaryfitted moving mesh scheme is presented for the simulation of twophase flow in twodimensional and axisymmetric geometries. The incompressible NavierStokes equations are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the mini element is used to satisfy the infsup condition. The interface between the phases is represented explicitly by an interface adapted mesh, thus allowing a sharp transition of the fluid properties. Surface tension is modelled as a volume force and is discretized in a consistent manner, thus allowing to obtain exact equilibrium (up to rounding errors) with the pressure gradient. This is demonstrated for a spherical droplet moving in a constant flow field. The curvature of the interface, required for the surface tension term, is efficiently computed with simple but very accurate geometric formulas. An adaptive moving mesh technique, where smoothing mesh velocities and remeshing are used to preserve the mesh quality, is developed and presented. Mesh refinement strategies, allowing tailoring of the refinement of the computational mesh, are also discussed. Accuracy and robustness of the present method are demonstrated on several validation test cases. The method is developed with the prospect of being applied to microfluidic flows and the simulation of microchannel evaporators used for electronics cooling. Therefore, the simulation results for the flow of a bubble in a microchannel are presented and compared to experimental data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
A robust finite volume method for viscoelastic flow analysis on general unstructured meshes is developed. It is built upon a generalpurpose stabilization framework for high Weissenberg number flows. The numerical framework provides full combinatorial flexibility between different kinds of rheological models on the one hand, and effective stabilization methods on the other hand. A special emphasis is put on the velocitystresscoupling on colocated computational grids. Using special face interpolation techniques, a semiimplicit stress interpolation correction is proposed to correct the cellface interpolation of the stress in the divergence operator of the momentum balance. Investigating the entryflow problem of the 4:1 contraction benchmark, we demonstrate that the numerical methods are robust over a wide range of Weissenberg numbers and significantly alleviate the high Weissenberg number problem. The accuracy of the results is evaluated in a detailed mesh convergence study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
We present a novel approach to wall modeling for RANS within the discontinuous Galerkin method. Wall functions are not used to prescribe boundary conditions as usual but they are built into the function space of the numerical method as a local enrichment, in addition to the standard polynomial component. The Galerkin method then automatically finds the optimal solution among all shape functions available. This idea is fully consistent and gives the wall model vast flexibility in separated boundary layers or high adverse pressure gradients. The wall model is implemented in a highorder discontinuous Galerkin solver for incompressible flow complemented by the Spalart–Allmaras closure model. As benchmark examples we present turbulent channel flow starting from Re_{τ}=180 and up to Re_{τ}=100,000 as well as flow past periodic hills at Reynolds numbers based on the hill height of Re_{H}=10,595 and Re_{H}=19,000. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
In this paper, we present a twodimensional computational framework for the simulation of fluidstructure interaction problems involving incompressible flexible solids and multiphase flows, further extending the application range of classical immersed computational approaches to the context of hydrodynamics. The proposed method aims to overcome shortcomings such as the restriction of having to deal with similar density ratios among different phases or the restriction to solve singlephase flows. First, a variation of classical immersed techniques, pioneered with the Immersed Boundary Method [1], is presented by rearranging the governing equations which define the behaviour of the multiple physics involved. The formulation is compatible with the ‘onefluid’ formulation for two phase flows and can deal with large density ratios with the help of an anisotropic Poisson solver. Second, immersed deformable structures and fluid phases are modelled in an identical manner except for the computation of the deviatoric stresses. The numerical technique followed in this paper builds upon the Immersed Structural Potential Method [2] developed by the authors, by adding a Level Set based method for the capturing of the fluidfluid interfaces and an interface Lagrangian based meshless technique for the tracking of the fluidstructure interface. The spatial discretisation is based on the standard MarkerandCell method used in conjunction with a fractional step approach for the pressure/velocity decoupling, a second order time integrator and a fixed point iterative scheme. The paper presents a wide range of twodimensional applications involving multiphase flows interacting with immersed deformable solids, including benchmarking against both experimental and alternative numerical schemes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This paper presents a new SPH model for simuilating multiphase fluid flows with large density ratios. The new SPH model consists of an improved discretization scheme, an enhanced multiphase interface treatment algorithm and a coupled dynamic boundary treatment technique. The presented SPH discretization scheme is developed from Taylor series analysis with kernel normalization and kernel gradient correction, and is then used to discretize the NavierStokes equation to obtain improved SPH equations of motion for multiphase fluid flows. The multiphase interface treatment algorithm involves treating neighboring particles from different phases as virtual particles with specially updated density to maintain pressure consistency and a repulsive interface force between neighboring interface particles into the pressure gradient to keep sharp interface. The coupled dynamic boundary treatment technique includes a soft repulsive force between approaching fluid and solid particles while the information of virtual particles are approximated using the improved SPH discretization scheme. The presented SPH model is applied to three typical multiphase flow problems including dam breaking, RayleighTaylor instability, and air bubble rising in water. It is demonstrated that inherent multiphase flow physics can be well captured while the dynamic evolution of the complex multiphase interfaces are sharp with consistent pressure across the interfaces.
In this paper, a simple and efficient immersed boundary (IB) method is developed for the numerical simulation of inviscid compressible Euler equations. We propose a method based on coordinate transformation to calculate the unknowns of ghost points. In the present study, the bodygrid intercept points are used to build a complete bilinear (2D)/trilinear (3D) interpolation. A thirdorder weighted essentially nonoscillation scheme with a new reference smoothness indicator is proposed to improve the accuracy at the extrema and discontinuity region. The dynamic blocked structured adaptive mesh is used to enhance the computational efficiency. The parallel computation with loading balance is applied to save the computational cost for 3D problems. Numerical tests show that the present method has secondorder overall spatial accuracy. The double Mach reflection test indicates that the present IB method gives almost identical solution as that of the boundaryfitted method. The accuracy of the solver is further validated by subsonic and transonic flow past NACA2012 airfoil. Finally, the present IB method with adaptive mesh is validated by simulation of transonic flow past 3D ONERA M6 Wing. Global agreement with experimental and other numerical results are obtained.
An efficient ghostcell immersed boundary method is developed for the simulation of inviscid compressible flow. We propose a method based on coordinate transformation by using the bodygrid intercept points to build complete interpolation. The parallel adaptive mesh refinement is adopted to improve the computational efficiency. The figure shows the result of a 3D simulation of transonic flow past ONERA M6 Wing.
The weighted essentially nonoscillatory scheme is improved by introducing new smoothness indicators that evaluate the interactions among the classical smoothness indicators suggested by Jiang and Shu. The effect of the key parameters in the new smoothness indicators on the scheme is systematically investigated. The improved scheme has smaller dissipation with larger weight assignment to the discontinuous stencils and higher numerical accuracy with weights closer to the ideal weights. To verify the theory, benchmark problems governed by the linear transport equation, the 1dimensional nonlinear Burgers equation, and the Euler equations are conducted and analyzed, respectively. Better computational performances both on numerical resolution and accuracy are shown in the comparisons with other classical weighted essentially nonoscillatory schemes.
We have proposed an improved weighted essentially nonoscillatory scheme (WENO) dubbed WENOH by using new smoothness indicators that evaluate interactions between classical smoothness indicators suggested by Jiang and Shu. The WENOH scheme has smaller dissipation with larger weight assignment to the discontinuous stencils and better numerical accuracy with weights closer to the ideal weights. Numerical experiments show that the improved scheme has better numerical resolution and accuracy.
No abstract is available for this article.
A finite volume particle (FVP) method for simulation of incompressible flows that provides enhanced accuracy is proposed. In this enhanced FVP method, a dummy neighbor particle is introduced for each particle in the calculation and used for the discretization of the gradient model and Laplacian model. The errorcompensating term produced by introducing the dummy neighbor particle enables higher order terms to be calculated. The proposed gradient model and Laplacian model are applied in both pressure and pressure gradient calculations. This enhanced FVP scheme provides more accurate simulations of incompressible flows. Several 2dimensional numerical simulations are given to confirm its enhanced performance.
The distribution of forces on the surface of complex, deforming geometries is an invaluable output of flow simulations. One particular example of such geometries involves selfpropelled swimmers. Surface forces can provide significant information about the flow field sensed by the swimmers and are difficult to obtain experimentally. At the same time, simulations of flow around complex, deforming shapes can be computationally prohibitive when bodyfitted grids are used. Alternatively, such simulations may use penalization techniques. Penalization methods rely on simple Cartesian grids to discretize the governing equations, which are enhanced by a penalty term to account for the boundary conditions. They have been shown to provide a robust estimation of mean quantities, such as drag and propulsion velocity, but the computation of surface force distribution remains a challenge. We present a method for determining flowinduced forces on the surface of both rigid and deforming bodies, in simulations using remeshed vortex methods and Brinkman penalization. The pressure field is recovered from the velocity by solving a Poisson's equation using the Green's function approach, augmented with a fast multipole expansion and a treecode algorithm. The viscous forces are determined by evaluating the strainrate tensor on the surface of deforming bodies, and on a “lifted” surface in simulations involving rigid objects. We present results for benchmark flows demonstrating that we can obtain an accurate distribution of flowinduced surface forces. The capabilities of our method are demonstrated using simulations of selfpropelled swimmers, where we obtain the pressure and shear distribution on their deforming surfaces.
We present a method for determining flowinduced surface forces using vortex methods and Brinkman penalization. The efficacy of the method is tested for flow around rigid objects and for selfpropelled swimmers. The method accurately determines force distribution on the surface of complex, temporally evolving geometries.
Diffusional growth of cloud particles is commonly described by a coupled system of parabolic equations and ordinary differential equations. The Dirichlet boundary condition for the parabolic equation is obtained from the solution of the ordinary differential equations, but this solution itself depends on the solution of the parabolic equations. We first present the governing equations describing diffusional growth of cloud particles. In a second step, we consider a simplified model problem, motivated by the diffusional growth equations. The main difference between the simplified model problem and the diffusional growth equations consists in neglecting the dependence of the domain for the parabolic equations on the solution. For the model problem, we show unique solvability using a fixed point method. Finally, we discuss application of the main result for the model problem to the diffusional growth equations and illustrate these equations with the help of a numerical solution.
The bubbles are almost ubiquitous in many chemical and processing industries; and many of the polymeric solutions obey nonNewtonian rheological characteristics. Therefore, in this work the rise and deformation characteristics of spheroid bubbles in Carreau model nonNewtonian fluids are numerically investigated using a level set method. To demonstrate the validity of the moving bubble interface, the present simulations are compared with existing numerical and experimental results available in the literature; and for these comparisons, the computational geometries are considered same as reported in corresponding literatures. The present bubble deformation characteristics are satisfactorily agreeing with their literature counterparts. After establishing the validity of the numerical solution procedure, the same method is applied to obtain the deformation characteristics of an air bubble in Carreau model nonNewtonian fluids. Further, the results in terms of the volume fraction images, streamlines, and viscosity profiles around the deforming bubbles are presented as function of the bubble rise time.
We report the findings from a theoretical analysis of optimally growing disturbances in an initially turbulent boundary layer. The motivation behind this study originates from the desire to generate organized structures in an initially turbulent boundary layer via excitation by disturbances that are tailored to be preferentially amplified. Such optimally growing disturbances are of interest for implementation in an active flow control strategy that is investigated for effective jet noise control. Details of the optimal perturbation theory implemented in this study are discussed. The relevant stability equations are derived using both the standard decomposition and the triple decomposition. The chosen test case geometry contains a convergent nozzle, which generates a Mach 0.9 round jet, preceded by a circular pipe. Optimally growing disturbances are introduced at various stations within the circular pipe section to facilitate disturbance energy amplification upstream of the favorable pressure gradient zone within the convergent nozzle, which has a stabilizing effect on disturbance growth. Effects of temporal frequency, disturbance input and output plane locations as well as separation distance between output and input planes are investigated. The results indicate that optimally growing disturbances appear in the form of longitudinal counterrotating vortex pairs, whose size can be on the order of several times the input plane mean boundary layer thickness. The azimuthal wavenumber, which represents the number of counterrotating vortex pairs, is found to generally decrease with increasing separation distance. Compared to the standard decomposition, the triple decomposition analysis generally predicts relatively lower azimuthal wavenumbers and significantly reduced energy amplification ratios for the optimal disturbances.
The flow over two square cylinders in staggered arrangement is simulated numerically at a fixed Reynolds number ( \(Re =150\) ) for different gap spacing between cylinders from 0.1 to 6 times a cylinder side to understand the flow structures. The noninclined square cylinders are located on a line with a staggered angle of \(45^{\circ }\) to the oncoming velocity vector. All numerical simulations are carried out with a finitevolume code based on a collocated grid arrangement. The effects of vortex shedding on the various features of the flow field are numerically visualized using different flow contours such as \(\lambda _{2}\) criterion, vorticity, pressure and magnitudes of velocity to distinguish the distinctive flow patterns. By changing the gap spacing between cylinders, five different flow regimes are identified and classified as single body, periodic gap flow, aperiodic, modulated periodic and synchronized vortex shedding regimes. This study revealed that the observed multiple frequencies in global forces of the downstream cylinder in the modulated periodic regime are more properly associated with differences in vortex shedding frequencies of individual cylinders than individual shear layers reported in some previous works; particularly, both shear layers from the downstream cylinder often shed vortices at the same multiple frequencies. The maximum Strouhal number for the upstream cylinder is also identified at \({G}^{*}=1\) for aperiodic flow pattern. Furthermore, for most cases studied, the downstream cylinder experiences larger drag force than the upstream cylinder.
The stability of the conduction regime of natural convection in a porous vertical slab saturated with an OldroydB fluid has been studied. A modified Darcy’s law is utilized to describe the flow in a porous medium. The eigenvalue problem is solved using Chebyshev collocation method and the critical Darcy–Rayleigh number with respect to the wave number is extracted for different values of physical parameters. Despite the basic state being the same for Newtonian and OldroydB fluids, it is observed that the basic flow is unstable for viscoelastic fluids—a result of contrast compared to Newtonian as well as for powerlaw fluids. It is found that the viscoelasticity parameters exhibit both stabilizing and destabilizing influence on the system. Increase in the value of strain retardation parameter \(\Lambda _2 \) portrays stabilizing influence on the system while increasing stress relaxation parameter \(\Lambda _1\) displays an opposite trend. Also, the effect of increasing ratio of heat capacities is to delay the onset of instability. The results for Maxwell fluid obtained as a particular case from the present study indicate that the system is more unstable compared to OldroydB fluid.
The forces acting on a solid body just at the time of impact on the surface of a medium with very low compressibility, such as water, can be quantified at acoustic time scales. This is necessary in wide range of applications varying from largescale ship designs to the walking or running mechanisms of small creatures such as the basilisk lizard. In order to characterize such forces, a numerical model is developed in this study and is validated using analytical expressions of pressure as a function of the speed of soundwave propagation in water. The computational results not only accurately match the analytical values but are also able to effectively capture the propagation of acoustic waves in water. The model is further applied to a case study wherein the impact impulse required by the basilisk lizard to assist in its walking on the water surface is evaluated. The numerical results are found to be in agreement with the closest available experimental data. The model and approach are thus proposed to evaluate impact forces for wide range of applications.
The presence of a finite tangential velocity on a hydrodynamically slipping surface is known to reduce vorticity production in bluff body flows substantially while at the same time enhancing its convection downstream and into the wake. Here, we investigate the effect of hydrodynamic slippage on the convective heat transfer (scalar transport) from a heated isothermal circular cylinder placed in a uniform crossflow of an incompressible fluid through analytical and simulation techniques. At low Reynolds ( \({\textit{Re}}\ll 1\) ) and high Péclet ( \({\textit{Pe}}\gg 1\) ) numbers, our theoretical analysis based on Oseen and thermal boundary layer equations allows for an explicit determination of the dependence of the thermal transport on the nondimensional slip length \(l_s\) . In this case, the surfaceaveraged Nusselt number, Nu transitions gradually between the asymptotic limits of \(Nu \sim {\textit{Pe}}^{1/3}\) and \(Nu \sim {\textit{Pe}}^{1/2}\) for noslip ( \(l_s \rightarrow 0\) ) and shearfree ( \(l_s \rightarrow \infty \) ) boundaries, respectively. Boundary layer analysis also shows that the scaling \(Nu \sim {\textit{Pe}}^{1/2}\) holds for a shearfree cylinder surface in the asymptotic limit of \({\textit{Re}}\gg 1\) so that the corresponding heat transfer rate becomes independent of the fluid viscosity. At finite \({\textit{Re}}\) , results from our twodimensional simulations confirm the scaling \(Nu \sim {\textit{Pe}}^{1/2}\) for a shearfree boundary over the range \(0.1 \le {\textit{Re}}\le 10^3\) and \(0.1\le {\textit{Pr}}\le 10\) . A gradual transition from the lower asymptotic limit corresponding to a noslip surface, to the upper limit for a shearfree boundary, with \(l_s\) , is observed in both the maximum slip velocity and the Nu. The local timeaveraged Nusselt number \(Nu_{\theta }\) for a shearfree surface exceeds the one for a noslip surface all along the cylinder boundary except over the downstream portion where unsteady separation and flow reversal lead to an appreciable rise in the local heat transfer rates, especially at high \({\textit{Re}}\) and Pr. At a Reynolds number of \(10^3\) , the formation of secondary recirculating eddy pairs results in appearance of additional local maxima in \(Nu_{\theta }\) at locations that are in close proximity to the mean secondary stagnation points. As a consequence, Nu exhibits a nonmonotonic variation with \(l_s\) increasing initially from its lowermost value for a noslip surface and then decreasing before rising gradually toward the upper asymptotic limit for a shearfree cylinder. A nonmonotonic dependence of the spanwiseaveraged Nu on \(l_s\) is observed in three dimensions as well with the threedimensional wake instabilities that appear at sufficiently low \(l_s\) , strongly influencing the convective thermal transport from the cylinder. The analogy between heat transfer and singlecomponent mass transfer implies that our results can directly be applied to determine the dependency of convective mass transfer of a single solute on hydrodynamic slip length in similar configurations through straightforward replacement of Nu and \({\textit{Pr}}\) with Sherwood and Schmidt numbers, respectively.
An analysis of pressuregradientdriven flows in channels with walls modified by transverse ribs has been carried out. The ribs have been introduced intentionally in order to generate streamwise vortices through centrifugally driven instabilities. The cost of their introduction, i.e. the additional pressure losses, have been determined. Linear stability theory has been used to determine conditions required for the formation of the vortices. It has been demonstrated that there exists a finite range of rib wave numbers capable of creating vortices. Within this range, there exists an optimal wave number which results in the minimum critical Reynolds number for the specified rib amplitude. The optimal wave numbers marginally depend on the rib positions and amplitudes. As the formation of the vortices can be interfered with by viscositydriven instabilities, the critical conditions for the onset of such instabilities have also been determined. The rib geometries which result in the vortex formation with the smallest drag penalty and without interference from the viscositydriven instabilities have been identified.
The linearized pressure Poisson equation (LPPE) is used in two and three spatial dimensions in the respective matrixforming solution of the BiGlobal and TriGlobal eigenvalue problem in primitive variables on collocated grids. It provides a disturbance pressure boundary condition which is compatible with the recovery of perturbation velocity components that satisfy exactly the linearized continuity equation. The LPPE is employed to analyze instability in wallbounded flows and in the prototype open Blasius boundary layer flow. In the closed flows, excellent agreement is shown between results of the LPPE and those of global linear instability analyses based on the timestepping nektar++, Semtex and nek5000 codes, as well as with those obtained from the FreeFEM++ matrixforming code. In the flat plate boundary layer, solutions extracted from the twodimensional LPPE eigenvector at constant streamwise locations are found to be in very good agreement with profiles delivered by the NOLOT/PSE space marching code. Benchmark eigenvalue data are provided in all flows analyzed. The performance of the LPPE is seen to be superior to that of the commonly used pressure compatibility (PC) boundary condition: at any given resolution, the discrete part of the LPPE eigenspectrum contains converged and not converged, but physically correct, eigenvalues. By contrast, the PC boundary closure delivers some of the LPPE eigenvalues and, in addition, physically wrong eigenmodes. It is concluded that the LPPE should be used in place of the PC pressure boundary closure, when BiGlobal or TriGlobal eigenvalue problems are solved in primitive variables by the matrixforming approach on collocated grids.
We report the results of a computational investigation of two blowup criteria for the 3D incompressible Euler equations. One criterion was proven in a previous work, and a related criterion is proved here. These criteria are based on an inviscid regularization of the Euler equations known as the 3D Euler–Voigt equations, which are known to be globally wellposed. Moreover, simulations of the 3D Euler–Voigt equations also require less resolution than simulations of the 3D Euler equations for fixed values of the regularization parameter \(\alpha >0\) . Therefore, the new blowup criteria allow one to gain information about possible singularity formation in the 3D Euler equations indirectly, namely by simulating the betterbehaved 3D Euler–Voigt equations. The new criteria are only known to be sufficient criterion for blowup. Therefore, to test the robustness of the inviscidregularization approach, we also investigate analogous criteria for blowup of the 1D Burgers equation, where blowup is well known to occur.