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Old   December 15, 2004, 04:01
Default Low Speed Airfoil
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I can't get make any sense of the drag,lift and momentum coef's that I get when modelling a low speed airfoil. I want to model the DAE11 airfoil at 10m/s.

I've created a circular mesh with diameter 20 meters in the middle is the airfoil with a chord of 1 meter. I have a very fine boundary layer and a very fine mesh around the airfoil. I set the circular edge to be a pressure farfield (which I can change to a velocity inlet in FLUENT afterwards) and the upper and lower parts of the airfoil as one wall. The airfoil is almost completely laminar so I should get good result running it in laminar solver.

The pressure graph over the airfoil matches in shape and so do the pressure fields near the airfoil when I dsiplay them, just like you would epext them to be over an airfoil only the coef's dont make any sense.

I've run my problem with different turbulence model to and applied all the obvious settings.

Can anybody please help me I'm stuck.
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Old   December 15, 2004, 07:11
Default Re: Low Speed Airfoil
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The force coefficients are calculated using the reference values (Area, density & velocity) set in the report menu. Have you set these?

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Old   December 15, 2004, 09:02
Default Re: Low Speed Airfoil
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Also it is common that pressure and lift coeficient are in good agreement wit exp. data. On the other hand the drag coef. is usually overpredicted. the reason lies in bad simulation in boundary layer flow. It usually helps a bit to use low-Re model bu the discrepancies will remain.

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Old   December 16, 2004, 10:04
Default Re: Low Speed Airfoil
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I use these settings

FLUENT Version: 2d, dp, coupled imp, S-A (2d, double precision, coupled implicit, Spalart-Allmaras) Release: 6.1.22 Title:

Models ------

Model Settings


Space 2D

Time Steady

Viscous Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model

Production Option Vorticity

Heat Transfer Enabled

Solidification and Melting Disabled

Radiation None

Species Transport Disabled

Coupled Dispersed Phase Disabled

Pollutants Disabled

Soot Disabled

Boundary Conditions -------------------


name id type


fluid 2 fluid

farfield 3 pressure-far-field

airfoil 4 wall

default-interior 6 interior

Boundary Conditions


Condition Value


Material Name air

Specify source terms? no

Source Terms ()

Specify fixed values? no

Fixed Values ()

Motion Type 0

X-Velocity Of Zone 0

Y-Velocity Of Zone 0

Rotation speed 0

X-Origin of Rotation-Axis 0

Y-Origin of Rotation-Axis 0

Deactivated Thread no

Laminar zone? no

Set Turbulent Viscosity to zero within laminar zone? yes

Porous zone? no

X-Component of Direction-1 Vector 1

Y-Component of Direction-1 Vector 0

Direction-1 Viscous Resistance 0

Direction-2 Viscous Resistance 0

Direction-1 Inertial Resistance 0

Direction-2 Inertial Resistance 0

C0 Coefficient for Power-Law 0

C1 Coefficient for Power-Law 0

Porosity 1

Solid Material Name aluminum


Condition Value


Gauge Pressure 101325

Mach Number 0.028999999

Temperature 300

X-Component of Flow Direction 1

Y-Component of Flow Direction 0

Turbulence Specification Method 0

Modified Turbulent Viscosity 0.001

Turbulence Intensity 0.1

Turbulence Length Scale 1

Hydraulic Diameter 1

Turbulent Viscosity Ratio 10


Condition Value


Wall Thickness 0

Heat Generation Rate 0

Material Name aluminum

Thermal BC Type 1

Temperature 300

Heat Flux 0

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient 0

Free Stream Temperature 300

Wall Motion 0

Shear Boundary Condition 0

Define wall motion relative to adjacent cell zone? yes

Apply a rotational velocity to this wall? no

Velocity Magnitude 0

X-Component of Wall Translation 1

Y-Component of Wall Translation 0

Define wall velocity components? no

X-Component of Wall Translation 0

Y-Component of Wall Translation 0

External Emissivity 1

External Radiation Temperature 300

Wall Roughness Height 0

Wall Roughness Constant 0.5

Rotation Speed 0

X-Position of Rotation-Axis Origin 0

Y-Position of Rotation-Axis Origin 0

X-component of shear stress 0

Y-component of shear stress 0

Surface tension gradient 0


Condition Value


Solver Controls ---------------


Equation Solved


Flow yes

Modified Turbulent Viscosity yes


Numeric Enabled


Absolute Velocity Formulation yes


Variable Relaxation Factor


Modified Turbulent Viscosity 0.80000001

Turbulent Viscosity 1

Solid 1

Linear Solver

Solver Termination Residual Reduction

Variable Type Criterion Tolerance


Flow F-Cycle 0.1

Modified Turbulent Viscosity Flexible 0.1 0.7

Discretization Scheme

Variable Scheme


Flow Second Order Upwind

Modified Turbulent Viscosity Second Order Upwind

Time Marching

Parameter Value


Solver Implicit

Courant Number 5

Solution Limits

Quantity Limit


Minimum Absolute Pressure 1

Maximum Absolute Pressure 5000000

Minimum Temperature 1

Maximum Temperature 5000

Maximum Turb. Viscosity Ratio 100000

Material Properties -------------------

Material: air (fluid)

Property Units Method Value(s)


Density kg/m3 ideal-gas #f

Cp (Specific Heat) j/kg-k constant 1006.43

Thermal Conductivity w/m-k constant 0.0242

Viscosity kg/m-s constant 1.7894001e-05

Molecular Weight kg/kgmol constant 28.966

L-J Characteristic Length angstrom constant 3.711

L-J Energy Parameter k constant 78.6

Thermal Expansion Coefficient 1/k constant 0

Degrees of Freedom constant 0

Material: aluminum (solid)

Property Units Method Value(s)


Density kg/m3 constant 2719

Cp (Specific Heat) j/kg-k constant 871

Thermal Conductivity w/m-k constant 202.4
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Old   December 16, 2004, 10:15
Default Re: Low Speed Airfoil
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How do I set it to use low-Re
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Old   December 17, 2004, 01:40
Default Re: Low Speed Airfoil
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Are you aware that Fluent's Lift and drag coefficients are given in body axes, not wind axes? So if you are changing the angle of the incoming flow, the calculated lift and drag forces are actually normal and axial forces. Also, by default, moments are taken about 0,0,0 , but you can set this.
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Old   December 17, 2004, 09:45
Default Re: Low Speed Airfoil
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I am aware of this and do compensate for it but I run at 0 degrees so it cant be a problem
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Old   April 3, 2014, 06:11
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Hai Charles, here to ask if we are not changing the angle of the incoming flow(constant flow), but change the angle of object (yaw), the Fluent's Lift and drag coefficients given are in body axes or wind axes?

Thanks,Regards wcchan2.
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