# Mass Flux Issues

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 September 26, 2019, 17:21 Mass Flux Issues #1 New Member   Join Date: Sep 2019 Posts: 3 Rep Power: 6 Hi, I'm new to CFD and really confused about the result I'm getting from exported Fluent data. This is more or less a general question and not specifically addressed at the software. I have a verified solution of a reacting flow inside a complex domain with multiple inlets. From what I understand, the RANS k-Omega realizable solutions are steady. This means then, for any control surface within the domain, the mass flux integrated over that surface should always be zero. Since integration over my arbitrary volumes is easier implemented outside of Fluent, I exported the velocity and density field solutions and interpolated those values over a uniform grid. Then I summed the mass flux at each face that lies between two cells belonging to different volumes. Long story short, I am not getting zero integrated mass flux for any volume I have assigned. I am wondering if my original assumption is correct or if there is something else I am missing here. Your help would be very much appreciated.

September 27, 2019, 03:41
#2
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by syotyy I am wondering if my original assumption is correct or if there is something else I am missing here.

Why would the mass flux have to be zero in a stationary flow?!
Mass flux is rho*u*A. This can only be zero if either rho, u, or A are zero.

A = 0 is useless, the massflux over zero space is of course zero
rho = 0 is physically impossibe
u = 0 means the fluid is stationary
So your assumption is true if the fluid is at rest everywhere in your domain. If it's not your assumption is (very) wrong.

September 27, 2019, 03:45
#3
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Filippo Maria Denaro
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by el_mojito Your assumption is wrong. Why would the mass flux have to be zero in a stationary flow?! Mass flux is rho*u*A. This can only be zero if either rho, u, or A are zero. A = 0 is useless, the massflux over zero space is of course zero rho = 0 is physically impossibe u = 0 means the fluid is stationary So your assumption is true if the fluid is at rest everywhere in your domain. If it's not your assumption is (very) wrong.

Be careful, syotyy wrote that the integral of the mass flux is zero, a fact that is definitely true!

The problem is that the discrete conservation is verified only for the node where the computation is really performed. So the consistence check must be done according to the original method of computation.

September 27, 2019, 08:04
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by FMDenaro Be careful, syotyy wrote that the integral of the mass flux is zero, a fact that is definitely true!

Am I'm misunderstanding his question? Why should the mass flux integrated over any surface be zero?
If you have a uniform free stream with u=1 and rho=1 and a control surface perpendicular to the flow, the integrated mass flux is not zero?

Quote:
 Originally Posted by syotyy This means then, for any control surface within the domain, the mass flux integrated over that surface should always be zero.

September 27, 2019, 08:23
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by FMDenaro The problem is that the discrete conservation is verified only for the node where the computation is really performed. So the consistence check must be done according to the original method of computation.
So based on your answer, I might have a couple of problems here.
1) I used exported cell-centered values and took the average flux between two adjacent cells as an approximate for the face value. Since I have a node-based solution, I have essentially interpolated (face) from an interpolant (my grid) of an interpolant (cell-centered) of the node values.
2) I haven't checked the continuity residuals of my solution in a while. From what you're suggesting, should the residual have converged, my mesh node field will be steady and therefore yield the zero face flux over any surface. However, the same cannot be guaranteed if I then interpolated those values over to a coarser, uniform grid.

September 27, 2019, 08:25
#6
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Filippo Maria Denaro
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by el_mojito Am I'm misunderstanding his question? Why should the mass flux integrated over any surface be zero? If you have a uniform free stream with u=1 and rho=1 and a control surface perpendicular to the flow, the integrated mass flux is not zero?
I assumed a closed surface that is the boundary of a control volume, not an arbitrary single surface.
Let we wait for the details

September 27, 2019, 08:29
#7
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by FMDenaro I assumed a closed surface that is the boundary of a control volume, not an arbitrary single surface.
Yes, that is what I forgot to mention. The type of CS I am referring to will always enclose a finite volume in the domain.

September 27, 2019, 08:39
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by syotyy Yes, that is what I forgot to mention. The type of CS I am referring to will always enclose a finite volume in the domain.
Quote:
 Originally Posted by FMDenaro I assumed a closed surface that is the boundary of a control volume, not an arbitrary single surface. Let we wait for the details

Ah, I see. Then I simply misinterpreted your question.

September 27, 2019, 11:12
#9
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Filippo Maria Denaro
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Quote:
 Originally Posted by syotyy Hi, thanks for your reply! So based on your answer, I might have a couple of problems here. 1) I used exported cell-centered values and took the average flux between two adjacent cells as an approximate for the face value. Since I have a node-based solution, I have essentially interpolated (face) from an interpolant (my grid) of an interpolant (cell-centered) of the node values. 2) I haven't checked the continuity residuals of my solution in a while. From what you're suggesting, should the residual have converged, my mesh node field will be steady and therefore yield the zero face flux over any surface. However, the same cannot be guaranteed if I then interpolated those values over to a coarser, uniform grid.

First of all, in your code you have to set the correct convergence criterion that ensures the continuity is statisfied at the steady state, that is

Int[S]n.(rho v)dS =0

is satisfied in discrete sense.

But that does not ensure you can have the same level of residual if you adopt a different scheme to compute the integral in a post-processing code. You have to apply the same interpolant and numerical integral used in the code.

 September 30, 2019, 05:08 #10 Senior Member     Paolo Lampitella Join Date: Mar 2009 Location: Italy Posts: 2,152 Blog Entries: 29 Rep Power: 39 As mentioned by Filippo, what in a Finite Volume (steady or incompressible) computation has a null (actually order of the residual) integral over closed surfaces is the actual mass flux used to discretize the continuity equation, because that is the entity that enters the continuity equation whose residual you eventually drive to 0 with the iterations. Said otherwise, you know that a certain integral goes to zero exactly because you used that integral = 0 as one of your equations. So in order for you to verify this you should have access to the exact same terms composing that equation. In theory this is very hard to do because it might depend from an infinity of details you don't know of. In practice, Fluent stores these mass fluxes for every face, both interior and boundary ones, so you can export them directly (but you need to be aware of the sign convention used by Fluent to avoid mistakes). FMDenaro likes this.

September 30, 2019, 08:23
#11
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Arjun
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I add little bit to it:

1. The interpolated velocity to the fluent may not be the same as you expect them to be.

2. The flux for Fluent also accounts for Chie and Chow terms. These are pretty much always non zero in good part of the domain.

Quote:
 Originally Posted by sbaffini As mentioned by Filippo, what in a Finite Volume (steady or incompressible) computation has a null (actually order of the residual) integral over closed surfaces is the actual mass flux used to discretize the continuity equation, because that is the entity that enters the continuity equation whose residual you eventually drive to 0 with the iterations. Said otherwise, you know that a certain integral goes to zero exactly because you used that integral = 0 as one of your equations. So in order for you to verify this you should have access to the exact same terms composing that equation. In theory this is very hard to do because it might depend from an infinity of details you don't know of. In practice, Fluent stores these mass fluxes for every face, both interior and boundary ones, so you can export them directly (but you need to be aware of the sign convention used by Fluent to avoid mistakes).

 Tags rans modelling, reacting flow, steady state rans