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Difficulties running 3D inverse design optimisations

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Old   October 17, 2016, 07:31
Default Difficulties running 3D inverse design optimisations
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Dominic Masters
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I have recently been trying to run a series of 3D inverse design cases but have been struggling to get it to work properly.

To use the inverse design feature i have set
INV_DESIGN_CP= YES
in the config file, this adds an output variable CP_diff to the history file.

To test this variables i have been running a test with two wings:
NACA0012 wing (unit chord, span 4, no sweep or taper)
NACA4410 wing (unit chord, span 4, no sweep or taper)

Here there NACA0012 will act as the starting wing and the NACA4410 will be the target.

My current process is:
Mesh NACA0012;
Deform mesh to NACA4410;
Run SU2;
Read in data from solution file and output wing surface to TargetCP.dat in format
"Global_Index", "x_coord", "y_coord", "z_coord", "Pressure", "Pressure_Coefficient", "Mach_Number";
Set mesh back to original NACA0012;
Run SU2; (This produces a solution with Cp_diff=3.4868)
Deform mesh to NACA4410;
Run SU2; (This produces a solution with Cp_diff=0.4733)

This final run should surely give Cp_diff=0?? I have checked the final pressure distributions and they are within 5e-8 of each other at all points.

Does anybody know what equation is used to calculate Cp_diff? i would expect it to be the RMS or mean errors.

Does anybody know the format needed for the TargetCp.dat file? It could be that im specifying it incorrectly. I have based the format here on the testcase example though this is only a 2D case.

Any help would be much appreciated.

I have included my config file and a snippet of my TargetCp.dat file below

Quote:
% ------------- DIRECT, ADJOINT, AND LINEARIZED PROBLEM DEFINITION ------------%
%
% Physical governing equations (EULER, NAVIER_STOKES)
PHYSICAL_PROBLEM= EULER
%
% Mathematical problem (DIRECT, ADJOINT)
MATH_PROBLEM= DIRECT
%
% Restart solution (NO, YES)
RESTART_SOL= NO

% -------------------- COMPRESSIBLE FREE-STREAM DEFINITION --------------------%
%
% Mach number (non-dimensional, based on the free-stream values)
MACH_NUMBER= 0.85
%
% Angle of attack (degrees)
AoA= 0.5
%
% Side-slip angle (degrees)
SIDESLIP_ANGLE= 0.0
%
% Free-stream pressure (101325.0 N/m^2 by default, only for Euler equations)
FREESTREAM_PRESSURE= 101325.0
%
% Free-stream temperature (288.15 K by default)
FREESTREAM_TEMPERATURE= 288.15

% ---------------------- REFERENCE VALUE DEFINITION ---------------------------%
%
% Reference origin for moment computation
REF_ORIGIN_MOMENT_X = 0.25
REF_ORIGIN_MOMENT_Y = 0.00
REF_ORIGIN_MOMENT_Z = 0.00
%
% Reference length for pitching, rolling, and yawing non-dimensional moment
REF_LENGTH_MOMENT= 1.0
%
% Reference area for force coefficients (0 implies automatic calculation)
REF_AREA= 0
%
% Flow non-dimensionalization (DIMENSIONAL, FREESTREAM_PRESS_EQ_ONE,
% FREESTREAM_VEL_EQ_MACH, FREESTREAM_VEL_EQ_ONE)
REF_DIMENSIONALIZATION= DIMENSIONAL

% ----------------------- BOUNDARY CONDITION DEFINITION -----------------------%
%
% Marker of the Euler boundary (NONE = no marker)
MARKER_EULER= ( wing )
%
% Marker of the far field (NONE = no marker)
MARKER_FAR= ( farfield )

MARKER_SYM= ( symmetry )
% ------------------------ SURFACES IDENTIFICATION ----------------------------%
%
% Marker(s) of the surface in the surface flow solution file
MARKER_PLOTTING = ( wing )
%
% Marker(s) of the surface where the non-dimensional coefficients are evaluated.
MARKER_MONITORING = ( wing )
%
% Marker(s) of the surface where obj. func. (design problem) will be evaluated
MARKER_DESIGNING = ( wing )

% --------------------- INVERSE DESIGN SIMULATION -----------------------------%
%
% Evaluate an inverse design problem using Cp (NO, YES)
INV_DESIGN_CP= YES
%
% Evaluate an inverse design problem using heat flux (NO, YES)
INV_DESIGN_HEATFLUX= NO

% ------------- COMMON PARAMETERS TO DEFINE THE NUMERICAL METHOD --------------%
%
% Numerical method for spatial gradients (GREEN_GAUSS, WEIGHTED_LEAST_SQUARES)
NUM_METHOD_GRAD= WEIGHTED_LEAST_SQUARES
%
% Objective function in optimization problem (DRAG, LIFT, SIDEFORCE, MOMENT_X,
% MOMENT_Y, MOMENT_Z, EFFICIENCY,
% EQUIVALENT_AREA, NEARFIELD_PRESSURE,
% FORCE_X, FORCE_Y, FORCE_Z, THRUST,
% TORQUE, FREE_SURFACE, TOTAL_HEATFLUX,
% MAXIMUM_HEATFLUX, INVERSE_DESIGN_PRESSURE,
% INVERSE_DESIGN_HEATFLUX)
OBJECTIVE_FUNCTION= INVERSE_DESIGN_PRESSURE
%
% Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition of the finest grid
CFL_NUMBER= 3
%
% Adaptive CFL number (NO, YES)
CFL_ADAPT= YES
%
% Parameters of the adaptive CFL number (factor down, factor up, CFL min value,
% CFL max value )
CFL_ADAPT_PARAM= ( 1.5, 0.5, 3, 25.0 )
%
% Runge-Kutta alpha coefficients
RK_ALPHA_COEFF= ( 0.66667, 0.66667, 1.000000 )
%
% Number of total iterations
EXT_ITER= 3000
%
% Linear solver for the implicit formulation (BCGSTAB, FGMRES)
LINEAR_SOLVER= BCGSTAB
%
% Min error of the linear solver for the implicit formulation
LINEAR_SOLVER_ERROR= 1E-6
%
% Max number of iterations of the linear solver for the implicit formulation
LINEAR_SOLVER_ITER= 5

% ----------------------- SLOPE LIMITER DEFINITION ----------------------------%
%
% Reference element length for computing the slope and sharp edges limiters.
REF_ELEM_LENGTH= 0.1
%
% Coefficient for the limiter
LIMITER_COEFF= 0.3
%
% Coefficient for the sharp edges limiter
SHARP_EDGES_COEFF= 3.0
%
% Reference coefficient (sensitivity) for detecting sharp edges.
REF_SHARP_EDGES= 3.0
%
% Remove sharp edges from the sensitivity evaluation (NO, YES)
SENS_REMOVE_SHARP= NO

% -------------------------- MULTIGRID PARAMETERS -----------------------------%
%
% Multi-Grid Levels (0 = no multi-grid)
MGLEVEL= 3
%
% Multi-grid cycle (V_CYCLE, W_CYCLE, FULLMG_CYCLE)
MGCYCLE= W_CYCLE
%
% Multi-Grid PreSmoothing Level
MG_PRE_SMOOTH= ( 1, 2, 3, 3 )
%
% Multi-Grid PostSmoothing Level
MG_POST_SMOOTH= ( 0, 0, 0, 0 )
%
% Jacobi implicit smoothing of the correction
MG_CORRECTION_SMOOTH= ( 0, 0, 0, 0 )
%
% Damping factor for the residual restriction
MG_DAMP_RESTRICTION= 0.9
%
% Damping factor for the correction prolongation
MG_DAMP_PROLONGATION= 0.9

% -------------------- FLOW NUMERICAL METHOD DEFINITION -----------------------%
%
% Convective numerical method (JST, LAX-FRIEDRICH, CUSP, ROE, AUSM, HLLC,
% TURKEL_PREC, MSW)
CONV_NUM_METHOD_FLOW= JST
%
% Spatial numerical order integration (1ST_ORDER, 2ND_ORDER, 2ND_ORDER_LIMITER)
%
SPATIAL_ORDER_FLOW= 2ND_ORDER_LIMITER
%
% Slope limiter (VENKATAKRISHNAN, MINMOD)
SLOPE_LIMITER_FLOW= VENKATAKRISHNAN
%
% 1st, 2nd and 4th order artificial dissipation coefficients
AD_COEFF_FLOW= ( 0.15, 0.5, 0.04 )
%
% Time discretization (RUNGE-KUTTA_EXPLICIT, EULER_IMPLICIT, EULER_EXPLICIT)
TIME_DISCRE_FLOW= EULER_IMPLICIT

% ---------------- ADJOINT-FLOW NUMERICAL METHOD DEFINITION -------------------%
%
% Convective numerical method (JST, LAX-FRIEDRICH, ROE)
CONV_NUM_METHOD_ADJFLOW= JST
%
% Spatial numerical order integration (1ST_ORDER, 2ND_ORDER, 2ND_ORDER_LIMITER)
%
SPATIAL_ORDER_ADJFLOW= 2ND_ORDER
%
% Slope limiter (VENKATAKRISHNAN, SHARP_EDGES)
SLOPE_LIMITER_ADJFLOW= VENKATAKRISHNAN
%
% 1st, 2nd, and 4th order artificial dissipation coefficients
AD_COEFF_ADJFLOW= ( 0.15, 0.0, 0.04 )
%
% Reduction factor of the CFL coefficient in the adjoint problem
CFL_REDUCTION_ADJFLOW= 0.5
%
% Time discretization (RUNGE-KUTTA_EXPLICIT, EULER_IMPLICIT)
TIME_DISCRE_ADJFLOW= EULER_IMPLICIT

% --------------------------- CONVERGENCE PARAMETERS --------------------------&
%
% Convergence criteria (CAUCHY, RESIDUAL)
CONV_CRITERIA= RESIDUAL
%
% Residual reduction (order of magnitude with respect to the initial value)
RESIDUAL_REDUCTION= 6
%
% Min value of the residual (log10 of the residual)
RESIDUAL_MINVAL= -8
%
% Start convergence criteria at iteration number
STARTCONV_ITER= 100
%
% Number of elements to apply the criteria
CAUCHY_ELEMS= 100
%
% Epsilon to control the series convergence
CAUCHY_EPS= 1E-10
%
% Function to apply the criteria (LIFT, DRAG, NEARFIELD_PRESS, SENS_GEOMETRY,
% SENS_MACH, DELTA_LIFT, DELTA_DRAG)
CAUCHY_FUNC_FLOW= DRAG

% ------------------------- INPUT/OUTPUT INFORMATION --------------------------%
%
% Mesh input file
MESH_FILENAME= wing_mesh.su2
%
% Mesh output file
MESH_OUT_FILENAME= mesh_out.su2
%
% Restart flow input file
SOLUTION_FLOW_FILENAME= solution_flow.dat
%
% Restart adjoint input file
SOLUTION_ADJ_FILENAME= solution_adj.dat
%
% Mesh input file format (SU2)
MESH_FORMAT= SU2
%
% Output file format (PARAVIEW, TECPLOT)
OUTPUT_FORMAT= TECPLOT
%
% Output file convergence history
CONV_FILENAME= history
%
% Output file restart flow
RESTART_FLOW_FILENAME= solution_flow.dat
%
% Output file restart adjoint
RESTART_ADJ_FILENAME= solution_adj.dat
%
% Output file flow (w/o extension) variables
VOLUME_FLOW_FILENAME= flow
%
% Output file adjoint (w/o extension) variables
VOLUME_ADJ_FILENAME= adjoint
%
% Output Objective function gradient (using continuous adjoint)
GRAD_OBJFUNC_FILENAME= of_grad.dat
%
% Output file surface flow coefficient (w/o extension)
SURFACE_FLOW_FILENAME= surface_flow
%
% Output file surface adjoint coefficient (w/o extension)
SURFACE_ADJ_FILENAME= surface_adjoint
%
% Writing solution frequency
WRT_SOL_FREQ= 50
%
% Writing convergence history frequency
WRT_CON_FREQ= 1
Quote:
"Global_Index", "x_coord", "y_coord", "z_coord", "Pressure", "Pressure_Coefficient", "Mach_Number"
12, 9.999999999958880e-01, 1.411300000000000e-12, 4.469040000000000e-11, 1.076833156111371e+05, 1.240765123826964e-01, 6.489537597236790e-01
13, 9.811752969634098e-01, -1.032340000000000e-11, 1.982257791385000e-04, 1.151049649291407e+05, 2.689029758398345e-01, 6.680097283043054e-01
14, 9.598419814695387e-01, 7.073900000000000e-12, 4.048149345863000e-04, 1.136965096564615e+05, 2.414183039913722e-01, 6.582293790847119e-01
15, 9.358231661154618e-01, 1.753320000000000e-11, 5.447794120712000e-04, 1.131875352358927e+05, 2.314861498080288e-01, 6.675954152059115e-01
16, 9.086413460378265e-01, -1.648430000000000e-11, 6.631758423330000e-04, 1.127047372902995e+05, 2.220648047634692e-01, 6.733827951294643e-01
17, 8.777656304886954e-01, 1.378240000000000e-11, 7.331880120925000e-04, 1.123576399128433e+05, 2.152915278949033e-01, 6.777087918150219e-01
18, 8.426982206509048e-01, -1.307310000000000e-11, 6.842299864321000e-04, 1.119706766931277e+05, 2.077403068390339e-01, 6.815604501378393e-01
19, 8.029546237349593e-01, 1.168560000000000e-11, 4.804382715328000e-04, 1.115842395753330e+05, 2.001993521643078e-01, 6.858022803466900e-01
20, 7.580568425143898e-01, -2.816400000000000e-12, 4.932684504200000e-05, 1.111180698831334e+05, 1.911024917496836e-01, 6.904744285750906e-01
21, 7.071146097433918e-01, -3.014400000000000e-12, -6.986783783659000e-04, 1.105262236651061e+05, 1.795531728591446e-01, 6.963624849703586e-01
22, 6.492292511464548e-01, -7.050000000000000e-13, -1.870777956787400e-03, 1.096577085121488e+05, 1.626049215106710e-01, 7.044792884810486e-01
23, 5.837104497881099e-01, -1.750000000000000e-13, -3.571561610770500e-03, 1.084549539346285e+05, 1.391343040770786e-01, 7.154239038249579e-01
24, 5.094770097525616e-01, -1.280000000000000e-14, -5.878815795670300e-03, 1.072611446463050e+05, 1.158382454973829e-01, 7.266588836335562e-01
25, 4.424040440727674e-01, 8.000000000000000e-16, -8.164788684971801e-03, 1.063783815125765e+05, 9.861195828678800e-02, 7.351374848574266e-01
26, 3.830681364538716e-01, 1.000000000000000e-16, -1.023315297343860e-02, 1.053980051512268e+05, 7.948084130894596e-02, 7.429510336459746e-01
27, 3.307952617909919e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.251456653477850e-02, 1.039304571523889e+05, 5.084303082796441e-02, 7.535180332679962e-01
28, 2.844827518968946e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.490367151614590e-02, 1.024200803786655e+05, 2.136945733325035e-02, 7.645696476170517e-01
29, 2.436768625803593e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.715622921401340e-02, 1.005065606976984e+05, -1.597106850887424e-02, 7.788784870221939e-01
30, 2.075800884207864e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.913424071859970e-02, 9.541288098348357e+04, -1.153694080671134e-01, 8.221268789822272e-01
31, 1.758799840498863e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.073858052396280e-02, 8.419631540572255e+04, -3.342500712670796e-01, 9.318604122686042e-01
32, 1.478886268994197e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.193511996243150e-02, 6.990938213300209e+04, -6.130460545961350e-01, 1.097179683524535e+00
33, 1.232095706728251e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.270311633810980e-02, 6.044195291232950e+04, -7.977939769662552e-01, 1.220408171039627e+00
34, 1.015705250322362e-01, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.303787709895280e-02, 5.757654079564001e+04, -8.537097829314719e-01, 1.251308506434666e+00
35, 8.249100108771330e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.294639125655460e-02, 5.798853178459129e+04, -8.456701686423298e-01, 1.233906493560443e+00
36, 6.580936310785900e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.243422184003360e-02, 5.936863618592433e+04, -8.187387372202289e-01, 1.199090602506196e+00
37, 5.127013540564330e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.150594221838990e-02, 6.126018271111096e+04, -7.818269967203276e-01, 1.153050702021346e+00
38, 3.863788850593470e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -2.015330843742130e-02, 6.388040240013983e+04, -7.306958889593789e-01, 1.094811422962837e+00
39, 2.772709990801760e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.834636747160960e-02, 6.811757614009929e+04, -6.480114529913293e-01, 1.022198155910698e+00
40, 1.846123915389790e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.603401099995460e-02, 7.566737901645718e+04, -5.006841941124943e-01, 9.357986553843666e-01
41, 1.080354959233140e-02, 0.000000000000000e+00, -1.311203297823260e-02, 8.821707991485561e+04, -2.557886566541402e-01, 8.399746765923882e-01
42, 4.938610710775700e-03, 0.000000000000000e+00, -9.459498070573700e-03, 1.085716351481739e+05, 1.414112275459200e-01, 6.961228514392741e-01
...
...
...
2450, 8.429156304311873e-01, 4.045073795436252e+00, 1.804389246053750e-02, 6.690232422157405e+04, -6.717259442086074e-01, 9.815290262057145e-01
2451, 8.034438527666381e-01, 4.047837401599717e+00, 2.167591968180350e-02, 7.033806229388381e+04, -6.046807669094572e-01, 9.827752319073390e-01
2452, 7.587645062889948e-01, 4.050524035853243e+00, 2.536667877865910e-02, 7.446259863663273e+04, -5.241943431610701e-01, 9.796487894025347e-01
2453, 7.081904577769592e-01, 4.053045274933841e+00, 2.900108393497640e-02, 7.883606575163540e+04, -4.388502709512135e-01, 9.704219141653703e-01
2454, 6.509437790366903e-01, 4.055299754467443e+00, 3.241893330814920e-02, 8.274177380275358e+04, -3.626340742404158e-01, 9.568318100527037e-01
2455, 5.861436984625328e-01, 4.057180456059736e+00, 3.540028721318350e-02, 8.601772153670907e+04, -2.987070541873013e-01, 9.421586046373963e-01
2456, 5.128001667694997e-01, 4.058589595679764e+00, 3.764462075496370e-02, 8.823578786921069e+04, -2.554235886279279e-01, 9.288979567832634e-01
2457, 4.475344282145104e-01, 4.059331704251196e+00, 3.864118554673450e-02, 8.944414674809374e+04, -2.318436085564981e-01, 9.181274671305583e-01
2458, 3.898802440079056e-01, 4.059685054322490e+00, 3.872586726086200e-02, 8.995113375474568e+04, -2.219502368750843e-01, 9.103982133416100e-01
2459, 3.389495270608788e-01, 4.059829641273014e+00, 3.770624683577850e-02, 8.987651013666480e+04, -2.234064461668401e-01, 9.061335497237027e-01
2460, 2.939580030007079e-01, 4.059873684779627e+00, 3.576430350466670e-02, 8.903758385210198e+04, -2.397772987480496e-01, 9.060030270243447e-01
2461, 2.542129857376549e-01, 4.059879741191883e+00, 3.324586216174870e-02, 8.726905342990100e+04, -2.742884964062846e-01, 9.137371583439736e-01
2462, 2.191026915171889e-01, 4.059823562906308e+00, 3.040145925467940e-02, 8.466527552924160e+04, -3.250987582257951e-01, 9.319538072485373e-01
2463, 1.880868909700027e-01, 4.059426137682153e+00, 2.741027636454130e-02, 8.179459519329917e+04, -3.811173685045043e-01, 9.564323676636900e-01
2464, 1.606881591013105e-01, 4.058516674145198e+00, 2.439801981142360e-02, 7.928483147799160e+04, -4.300930324609387e-01, 9.802448898118608e-01
2465, 1.364845956032131e-01, 4.057079609914085e+00, 2.145074472548800e-02, 7.761151026232430e+04, -4.627463125485626e-01, 9.972555885827995e-01
2466, 1.151034706046299e-01, 4.055179201691666e+00, 1.862515401512620e-02, 7.699173950506345e+04, -4.748405523977160e-01, 1.004031806865371e+00
2467, 9.621553863543850e-02, 4.052913991230286e+00, 1.595618818650580e-02, 7.731543523817186e+04, -4.685239364740109e-01, 1.000307225902837e+00
2468, 7.952998264046370e-02, 4.050390468389479e+00, 1.346266208888690e-02, 7.830500779638055e+04, -4.492133644166734e-01, 9.881053950571739e-01
2469, 6.478993203611630e-02, 4.047708800362599e+00, 1.115149254210850e-02, 7.952033707072321e+04, -4.254973636738191e-01, 9.713605144729937e-01
2470, 5.176849826123670e-02, 4.044955974435987e+00, 9.021499505837400e-03, 8.013559405837604e+04, -4.134912057672609e-01, 9.581782428135308e-01
2471, 4.026527006102050e-02, 4.042203351512647e+00, 7.067854346025100e-03, 7.928449412030242e+04, -4.300996156770070e-01, 9.604621570744121e-01
2472, 3.010321955002340e-02, 4.039506719370628e+00, 5.288124372534000e-03, 7.903963492837021e+04, -4.348778111013704e-01, 9.695128015442795e-01
2473, 2.112596989266790e-02, 4.036907651707925e+00, 3.688934153878600e-03, 8.922014958264417e+04, -2.362147012754427e-01, 9.141901156249406e-01
2474, 1.589476631380910e-02, 4.032160683178089e+00, 2.754067497349200e-03, 1.076073112038439e+05, 1.225933582960800e-01, 7.638655001883355e-01
2475, 1.107176331956910e-02, 4.026889876981837e+00, 1.910458401234300e-03, 1.259050440729518e+05, 4.796563003954745e-01, 6.223991663462916e-01
2476, 7.031654709701000e-03, 4.020585811517561e+00, 1.218301779471100e-03, 1.619540654652728e+05, 1.183118840275355e+00, 4.995779079477063e-01
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Old   September 19, 2017, 08:56
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  #2
Zen
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Zeno
Join Date: Sep 2013
Location: Delft, The Netherlands
Posts: 63
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Hi,

I don't know if you managed to solve the issue but here is my guess (it might also be useful for future discussions):

INVERSE_DESIGN_PRESSURE is your objective function and gets computed in solver_adjoint_mean.cpp under CAdjEulerSolver::SetForceProj_Vector(...).

Here is the code:

Code:
case INVERSE_DESIGN_PRESSURE :
     Cp = solver_container[FLOW_SOL]->GetCPressure(iMarker, iVertex);
     CpTarget = solver_container[FLOW_SOL]->GetCPressureTarget(iMarker, iVertex);
     Area = sqrt(Normal[0]*Normal[0] + Normal[1]*Normal[1]);
     if (nDim == 3) Area = sqrt(Normal[0]*Normal[0] + Normal[1]*Normal[1] + Normal[2]*Normal[2]);
     ForceProj_Vector[0] += -obj_weight*2.0*(Cp-CpTarget)*Normal[0]/Area;
     ForceProj_Vector[1] += -obj_weight*2.0*(Cp-CpTarget)*Normal[1]/Area;
     if (nDim == 3) ForceProj_Vector[2] += -obj_weight*2.0*(Cp-CpTarget)*Normal[2]/Area;
     break;
I think that the coordinates of your points in TargetCp.dat should be exactly the same as those of the grid points on the surface where you are evaluating your objective function (MARKER_MONITORING). SU2 is not interpolating the data from TargetCp.dat onto those points and therefore you are probably comparing pressure differences at two different locations.

Best,

Z
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