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Realisability and Schwarz' inequality

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Turbulence modeling
RANS-based turbulence models
  1. Linear eddy viscosity models
    1. Algebraic models
      1. Cebeci-Smith model
      2. Baldwin-Lomax model
      3. Johnson-King model
      4. A roughness-dependent model
    2. One equation models
      1. Prandtl's one-equation model
      2. Baldwin-Barth model
      3. Spalart-Allmaras model
    3. Two equation models
      1. k-epsilon models
        1. Standard k-epsilon model
        2. Realisable k-epsilon model
        3. RNG k-epsilon model
        4. Near-wall treatment
      2. k-omega models
        1. Wilcox's k-omega model
        2. Wilcox's modified k-omega model
        3. SST k-omega model
        4. Near-wall treatment
      3. Realisability issues
        1. Kato-Launder modification
        2. Durbin's realizability constraint
        3. Yap correction
        4. Realisability and Schwarz' inequality
  2. Nonlinear eddy viscosity models
    1. Explicit nonlinear constitutive relation
      1. Cubic k-epsilon
      2. EARSM
    2. v2-f models
      1. \overline{\upsilon^2}-f model
      2. \zeta-f model
  3. Reynolds stress model (RSM)
Large eddy simulation (LES)
  1. Smagorinsky-Lilly model
  2. Dynamic subgrid-scale model
  3. RNG-LES model
  4. Wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model
  5. Kinetic energy subgrid-scale model
  6. Near-wall treatment for LES models
Detached eddy simulation (DES)
Direct numerical simulation (DNS)
Turbulence near-wall modeling
Turbulence free-stream boundary conditions
  1. Turbulence intensity
  2. Turbulence length scale
Realisability is the minimum requirement to prevent a turbulence model generating non-physical results. For a model to be realisable the normal Reynolds stresses must be non-negative and the Schwarz' inequality must be satisfied between fluctuating quantities:

\left\langle{u^'_\alpha u^'_\alpha}\right\rangle \geq 0

\frac{\left\langle{u^'_\alpha u^'_\beta}\right\rangle}{ \left\langle{u^'_\alpha u^'_\beta}\right\rangle \left\langle{u^'_\alpha u^'_\beta}\right\rangle} \leq 1

where there is no summation over the indices. Some workers only apply the first inequality to satisfy realisability, or maintain non-negative vales of k and epsilon. This "weak" form of realisability is satisfied in non-linear models by setting C_\mu=0.09.


Speziale, C.G. (1991), "Analytical methods for the development of Reynolds-stress closures in turbulence", Ann. Rev. Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 23, pp107-157.

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